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Genetics And Human Welfare Essay

883 words - 4 pages

Genetics and Human welfare

Introduction
Human genetics can be considered as basic and a practical science. In the view of basic science it can be described as the branch of science that deals with laws of storage, transference, and understanding of information for development and normal working of the living. In this way, human genetics involves most worth-studying creature organism i.e. the human being. Human genetics is a practical science as its results are not only confined to theoretical level but of practical use as well. Its value for human wellbeing is bound to have consequences for theoretical research as well, since it effects the selection of problems by human geneticists, their beneficial results which allow the financers to invest. Because of its hypothetical and practical importance, human genetics offers temptation and human satisfaction unmatched by work in fields that are either primarily hypothetical or entirely practical.

In human genetics 1st step is to isolate gene and clone it. Then desired products can be obtained.

Cloned genes and production of chemicals
Cloned Genes can be used for
1. Production of Human Hormones
2. Vaccines
3. Commercial Chemicals

1. Production of Human Hormones

a. Human genes for peptide hormone
In the humans, peptide hormones are secreted from secretory cells of gland after gene expression of peptide hormone genes in these cells .e.g. insulin and other Human Growth Hormones

Insulin
Insulin is released from the Islets of Langerhans of pancreas gland located in abdomen, a peptide (protein) hormone. Insulin is a necessary for the diabetics whose normal function for glucose (carbohydrate) metabolism generally fails. Its precursor is proinsulin a pro-hormone in beta cells of pancreas which contains two polypeptide chains A and B, and is attached with a third peptide chain-C known as C-peptide (approx. 35 amino acid long). However, the new studies shown that precursor of insulin is actually pre- pro insulin which is about 109 amino acids long. Initially efforts were to separate mRNA of pre-prohormone from beta cells of pancreas of rat to produce cDNA and insert into the plasmid. The plasmids thus formed are called recombinant plasmids which were transmitted to E.coli. The product obtained from the bacteria is pro-insulin. An extra codon for methionine amino acid was added at the N-terminus of gene for A and B chains which helps in sepration of proinsulin. In laboratory A & B chains are joined and c-peptide is removed to form normal & functional insulin. A chain & B chain are attached with each other by sulphonation for this purpose disulphonates and sulphites are used. One transgenic bacteria can form 1 million insulin molecules. The 1st product produced...

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