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Genetics Contributions To Measures Of The Family Environment

1410 words - 6 pages

Professionals have argued that there are some issues with the methods of behavioural genetics. The articles, “Nature and Nurture: Genetic Contributions to Measures of the Family Environment” and “Differential Association of Family Subsystem Negativity on Siblings’ Maladjustment: Using Behavior Genetic Methods to Test Process Theory,” contain the use of the behavioural genetic viewpoint. Professionals have argued that there are a number of weaknesses in using the behavioural genetic model involved in twin, adoption, and family studies, among which are have to do with researchers and readers' interpretations of analyses, results and discussions (Richardson & Norgate, 2006; Lerner, 2006).
In addition, there have been more concerns with the use of very simple genetic models as an underlying assumption to begin the study, which is concerned with very complex genetic and environmental interactions (Haviland, McGuire, & Rothbaum, 1983). Both articles discussed here both use what is called as additive or independent effects of genes and environment (Plomin, Reiss, Hetherington, & Howe, 1994; Feinberg, Reiss, Neiderhiser, & Hetherington, 2005). This of which follows such principles as seen in Mendelian genetics, whereby one gene affects one characteristic, however, it may involve a mixing of the traits from the mother and the father (Richardson & Norgate, 2006; Lerner, 2006; Haviland et al., 1983). Richardson and Norgate (2006) and Lerner (2006), have argued that most behaviour and personality characteristics are usually do not involve a simple one gene, one characteristic event, on the contrary are usually a complex interplay of multiple genes, multiple characteristics, and environmental influences. The model being used in these two studies does not accurately reflect the way in which genetics of behaviour organizes (Lerner, 2006; Haviland et al., 1983).
Concerning the Nature and Nurture article, includes a disadvantage of the number of examiners interviewing the subjects. Plomin, Reiss, Hetherington, and Howe (1994) state that one or two interviewers were interviewing the participants. The number of interviewers can affect how the subjects act, what they talk about, may change their emotional state, or change their answer to question (Drost, 2011; Lakshimi & Mohideen, 2013). For example, if there is more than one interviewer it may make the adolescents more anxious than if there was one interviewer. This causes the study to lack internal consistency, because if there is an inconsistency in the number of interviewers used with each subject, then the reliability could be lowered (Lakshimi & Mohideen, 2013). The results could then be affected; an example would be a family that decides to participate in the study and two examiners will interview that family, while another family is interviewed by one examiner. The family that is interviewed by two interviewers may have different results than if they were interviewed by just one examiner. It may...

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