Genetics/Heredity. Essay

1033 words - 4 pages

SynopsisHomocystinuria is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine.Homocystinuria is thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait, which means the gene defect is unknowingly passed down from generation to generation. This faulty gene only emerges when two carriers have children together and pass it to their offspring. For each pregnancy of two such carriers, there is a 25% chance that the child will be born with the disease and a 50% chance the child will be a carrier for the gene defect.Studies conducted since 1979 show that 1 of every 200,000 live births in the Unite States will have homocystinuria. Prevalence in Great Britain, Ireland, and Australia is approximately is 1 in 82,000 live births.Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Of the 20 amino acids found in body protein, 8 cannot be made by adults and must be obtained from foods. These are considered essential amino acids. Normally, the protein we eat is broken down or "metabolized" in our bodies into amino acids and used for growth and tissue repair.People who are born with homocystinuria are unable to properly break down methionine, an amino acid found in food. In people not affected by homocystinuria, methionine is used by the body for growth and repair. Leftover methionine will lead to homocysteine and then to cysteine. Excess homocysteine is changed back to methionine. This balance is assisted by vitamins, and may occur as mildly delayed development orMost people with homocystinuria are missing cystathionine B-synthetase, the enzyme that changes homocysteine into cysteine in the liver.Usual findings in homocystinuria are nearsightedness, dislocation of the lens of the eye, and a tendency to develop blood clots in the veins and arteries.Newborn infants appear normal, and early symptoms, if present at all, are vague failure to thrive. Increasing visual problems may lead to diagnosis of this condition when the child, on examination, is discovered to have dislocated lenses and nearsightedness.Some degree of mental retardation is usually seen, but some affected people have normal IQs. When mental retardation is present, it is generally progressive if left untreated. The condition can also increase the risk for psychiatric disorders.Homocystinuria has several features in common with Marfan Syndrome, including dislocation of the lens; a tall, thin build with long limbs; spidery fingers, and a pectus deformity of the chest. In addition, affected people may have high arches of the feet, knock-knees, and a curved spine, or, scoliosis.Affected people commonly develop blood clots. These clots can dislodge and travel and damage any tissue in which the clot lodges. Clots that travel to the brain can cause stroke, for example.Some symptoms include: nearsightedness, flush across the cheeks, being very thin, long limbs, high-arched feet, knock-knees, mental retardation, and psychiatric disease.TreatmentThere is no specific cure for...

Find Another Essay On Genetics/Heredity.

Genetics Essay

587 words - 2 pages Genetics is defined as the study of genes through their variation or the study of inheritance. It is the branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.For thousands of years farmers and herders have been selectively breeding their plants and animals in order to produce more productive hybrids. It was somewhat of a

Hereditity Essay

1568 words - 6 pages "transmission of traits from parents to offspring" (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009) and the environment being the "circumstances or conditions that surround one" (The Free Dictionary, 2009). Throughout this paper the field of behavioral genetics, the ways that heredity and environment are correlated and shared and non-shared environmental experiences and the role each plays in development will be discussed.The Field of Behavioral GeneticsResearchers in

Behind the Scenes: The Effects of Acting on Personal Identity

1506 words - 6 pages heredity versus environment. There are many different benefits that will come with knowing whether or not genetics or environmental factors play the largest role in intelligence. First, if it turns out that intelligence is most directly associated with environment, then advances can be made in both household and school settings to make the environment more conducive to intellectual gains. On the other hand, if these studies produce results showing

Heredity, the Environment, and Development

1768 words - 7 pages results of the twin, adoption and family studies support these assumptions.The Correlation of Heredity and EnvironmentThe nature versus nurture controversy exists because some people believe that a person's genetics has the greatest impact on their personality, intelligence and behavior. On the flipside, some people believe that the environment has more of an impact. Behavior geneticists assume that behavior is influenced by the relations of

Nature: Who We Are

757 words - 4 pages The debate whether nature or nurture determines who a person is has been going on for quite some time now. The nature side believes genetics and biology play a huge role in who we are, where the nurture side believes people are basically blank, and are shaped by their environment and the experiences around them. There are some traces in nurture however our genetics and biology factor into who we are, every human is created a different way, and

The nature/nurture debate

794 words - 3 pages influence us. Either way, social scientists have been struggling for centuries deciding whether our personalities are born or made. Tests are done often on identical twins that were separated to see how they are influenced. In the past twenty years, it has been discovered that there is a genetic component to about every human trait and behaviour. However, genetic influence on traits and behaviour is partial because genetics account on average for half of

Gregor Mendel

641 words - 3 pages GREGOR JOHANN MENDEL (1822-1884) Gregor Mendel is known as the "Father of Genetics". Gregor Mendel is an Austrian botanist and monk, formulated the basic laws of heredity. His experiments with the breeding of garden peas led to the development of the science of genetics.Mendel was born in Heinzdorf, Austria (now Hynice, near Krnov, in what now is the Czech Replubic) on July 22, 1844. He died in Brunn on January 6 1884. His parents were peasants

Bio Literary Task

1664 words - 7 pages evolution by natural selection more than 150 years ago. Darwin knew that a mechanism for heredity existed, but could not explain how it worked or what it was. The study of genetics and the use of DNA fingerprinting pinpoints specific modifications and mutations that have resulted in evolutionary change. This has given historians, palaeontologists and archaeologists extensive evidence in the explanation of evolution. There has been, however, much debate

Nature and Nurture, not Nature vs. Nurture

1974 words - 8 pages just genetics and heredity. A child whose parents are career criminals will most likely learn their parent’s criminal ways. Not only do we learn from experience but there are other factors that make committing a crime more than just a genetic influence. Opportunity, ability, and desire all have to be present to be able to commit a crime. If any of those three aspects are removed from the equation, crime cannot be committed, regardless of what

The Life of Mendel: His Works and Progress in Genetics

599 words - 2 pages to the understanding of genotypes and phenotypes in plants and the concept of heterozygous and homozygous organisms and the numerical ratios that are always true for both monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. Mendel's work and theories became the basis for the study of heredity; he was without any doubt, the father of genetics.


984 words - 4 pages . Although causes of obesity may be due to physical inactivity, which leads to lower energy expenditures, it is not the main cause.Obesity is not just a matter of moral decision making. It is not an issue of should I eat this or should I exercise. There is much more involved in obesity than just these factors. Obesity does not just have one cause, but usually several other factors that effect it. There are factors such as genetics, heredity

Similar Essays

Character Is Equally Genetics And Environment

924 words - 4 pages is due to nurture, the influences of the physical and social environment in which a child is raised; is one of the major issues that psychologists address. For people like my ex-husband that believe heredity is the reason we are, I offer them behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics studies the affects of heredity on behavior. These researchers are finding increasing evidence that cognitive abilities, personality traits, sexual orientation, and

Time Line Essay

1679 words - 7 pages Mendel’s work. This event is very important to modern studies of reproduction and heredity because it is basically when the study of genetics was really born. It’s obvious why this is important because genetics plays a very key role in the studies of both heredity and reproduction. Heredity is the passing of traits from one generation to the next. Genetics is the study of how our traits are passed from one generation to the next. So basically

Gregor Mendel Essay

937 words - 4 pages , Mendel resulted with basic laws of heredity: hereditary factors do not combine, but are passed intact; each member of the parental generation transmits only half of its hereditary factors to each offspring (with certain factors "dominant" over others). He stated that different offspring of the same parents receive different sets of hereditary factors. Mendel's work became the foundation for modern genetics. The results of his work were published

The Father Of Genetics Essay

1122 words - 4 pages Variations among children of the same parents have mystified people for years. Sometimes there are parents who both have, for example, brown hair, but then their child has blonde hair. These strange differences in traits seemed to happen out of no reason, until Gregor Mendel came along. Experimenting with plants, he began the science of heredity, or genetics. There are many causes and effects of Gregor Mendel, including the help of other people