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Genus Pseudomonas Essay

1304 words - 6 pages

Pseudomonas belong to rRNA group I organism of gamma proteobacteria. They are gram negative aerobic rod-shape with polar flagella. They can be isolated from soil, decayed plant materials and rhizopheric region quite a numerous plant species. The strains of these bacteria called P. marginalis or P. fluorescens can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. The very complex groups of fluorescent, oxidase positive soft rot Pseudomonas are opportunistic macergens. The nomenclature of bacteria in the genus Pseudomonas has changed considerably during the last decennia. P. marginalis are pectinolytic P. fluorescens strains that cause soft rot on a wide range of hosts. The taxonomic and ...view middle of the document...

These methods which consist of cell morphology and structure, cell wall composition, pigment types, nutritional and metabolic characteristics, susceptibility to different compounds, antibiotic production, pathogenicity for other organisms, antigenic structure and genetic and ecological reveal the efforts for characterizing Pseudomonas species. The phenotypic taxonomic markers comprises a set of tests, namely: cell shape, flagella type, consumption of carbon sources such as organic acids, polyalcohols and aminoacids, ability to grow in different culture conditions, antibiotic resistance, production of antibiotic substances and exocellular enzymes (Palleroni 2005). In Pseudomonas taxonomy, the effectiveness of chemotaxonomic studies has been confirmed, such as quinone systems, fatty acid, protein, polar lipid or polyamine profiles, which are usually useful in the taxonomy of most bacterial groups. Generally, Pseudomonas species were reclassify by chemotaxonomic markers into other genera such as P. mephitica into Janthinobacterium lividum (Kämpfer et al. 2008). Janse et al. (1992) used whole fatty acid analysis in the study of a broad collection opportunistic phytopathogenic to clarify the taxonomic position of some P. marginalis strains included in the P. fluorescens group. Also, Janse et al. (1992) reported that other bacteria (P. putida, P. aureofaciens, and P. tolaasii) within the fluorescent oxidase positive pseudomonads group also exhibit pectinolytic ability. Hence, they are referred to as P. fluorescens supercluster. The study of polyamine composition in Proteobacteria revealed putrescine as the main polyamine present in the P. fluorescens complex thus help in delineation of species from this group. Recently, the polar lipid patterns of representative species of genus Pseudomonas were analysed which showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids (Cámara et al. 2007). Siderotyping an interesting taxonomic tool was used in characterizing fluorescent and then to nonfluorescent based on the isoelectrophoretic characterization of the major siderophores and pyoverdines and determination of strains pyoverdine mediated iron uptake specificity leading to characterization of several Pseudomonas strains at species level, through species-specific pyoverdines (Meyer et al. 2002). Mass spectrometry for the determination of molecular mass of pyoverdines has helped recently to improve siderotyping resolution power and accuracy (Meyer et al. 2008). Currently fluorescent spectroscopy fingerprinting, the most modern techniques for biomolecules analysis are being applied to Pseudomonas taxonomy, by emission spectra of three intrinsic fluorophores (NADH, tryptophan, and the complex of aromatic amino acids and nucleic acid) which have been able to differentiate Pseudomonas at genus level from Burkholderia, Xanthomonas or Stenotrophomonas with very high sensitivity, and moreover at species...

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