Germanic Influence on Higher Education
Before one can move forward with their education one must understand where it all started. When researching the history of higher education there is a common theme in every aspect of my research. I would find the word “college” and the word “university”. Throughout the 19th century there would be some confusion between the two words. In colleges the primary role is teaching where as in the university research and scholarships are the primary role (Lucas,2006). Also, current universities offer post- baccalaureate or graduate instruction whereas colleges do not. However, this was not always the case before the 19th century.
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“The workshop of free scientific research” is the German universities concept of a true higher learning university (Rudy, 1968).
In 1871 the birth of imperial Germany was evolved and a new type of university was formed. The university became a dedicated service to the state, which is why they evolved instructional techniques ( Rudy, 1968). This is when laboratories, specialist lectures and trainings were introduced and spread to theology and medicine. This is why Germany became famous for joining teaching and research, which then attracted Americans who wanted to grow their skills and techniques outside of sitting in lectures.
While trying to understand the scholarly migration in the history of higher education you must first understand two facts of why this is happening. First Germany was one of the few places Americans could go before the civil war. Second in America there were few opportunities for the advanced student to specialize in arts or science. One of the many pioneers that engaged in the Germany research culture G. Stanley Hall, the first head of the psychology department at John Hopkins brought back many thoughts from his experience in Germany. Returning back to the states he was very anxious to revolutionize the American higher education system as were all of the pioneers. Like current Americans we do not adapt well to the idea of change. And before 1850 Americans were not fond of the new vision for higher education. However, this did change after our technological and educational needs began to expand to a point where we needed to begin our new vision of higher education (Rudy, 1968).
After the civil was a new situation bean to emerge as American society became more industrialized, urban, specialized and secular, a demand arose from a new kind of higher education. A specialized skill was now needed in a most professional and scientific fields. As higher education increased stature in America fed on different aspects of German academic culture. Americans were amazed by what they saw in the Germany universities, but did they really see the whole picture in Germany? Rudy states,
“ Most of them, clearly, brought back the technical rules and outward forms of scholarship, the instructional techniques which relied heavily on the seminar, the lecture, and the research laboratory. But did they bring back the spirit? Did they bring back the philosophic context? Most of them apparently did not” (Rudy,1968,p.?).
Just like some people in education now “they just see what they wanted to see”. They brought back an outlook, which...