This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Given That 88% Of Indonesians Are Muslim, Why Is Political Islam Not Dominant?

1157 words - 5 pages

In answering the above question, there are two major themes that come to mind: the role of the state government, and the role of the Indonesian Muslim community.From the period of the Guided Democracy under Sukarno, and following that, Suharto's New Order, Islamic parties have been subjected to repression and manipulation by the state for over forty years. During the period of the New Order, the government was especially hostile towards the manifestation of Islam in politics, and was clear in its intention to systematically depoliticise Islam through its de-Islamicisation policies and tight control over Islamic political activities. In relation to the role of the state, it is important to look at these periods in Indonesia's political history and analyse the impact of state influence on the issue of what type of role Islam should play in Indonesia's political arena.The second issue important in considering the question of why political Islam is not dominant is the makeup of Indonesia's Muslim community itself and also the changes in attitude that have emerged throughout the years. The first thing to note is that the statistic of an 88% Muslim majority needs to be taken with caution, partly because of the method that was adopted in religiously categorising the population, and partly because it overshadows the diversity within the Muslim community itself. The diversity within the community into branching categories of santri, abangan, traditionalists, and modernists, also meant division within the Muslim majority, and differences in views has led to tension among Islamic political parties themselves. Post-1998, however, has seen changes not only in the patterns of political Islam and the approaches of political parties, but also in the perception of the Muslim majority of Islam and preference of its role as 'cultural Islam' to that of a political role. All these factors, more than ever, slim the chances of a dominant political Islam in Indonesia.State Influence.The state government plays a major role in the issue of a Political Islam in Indonesia in that it has stronghold over political dynamics in the region. Since 1945's independence, Muslim leaders and Islamic political parties had always struggled for the adoption of Syariah into the Constitution and were met with persistent failure. In 1955, Indonesia held its first national election for the House of Representatives and Constitutional Assembly and the results portrayed an absence of a clear majority in the Constitutional Assembly. This led to prolonged unresolved debates over the state's ideological basis between the Fives Principles of the Pancasila and Islam as the state's foundational principle.In 1959, the Constitutional Assembly was dissolved by Sukarno and the Guided Democracy was put in place. During the period of Guided Democracy, the NU was the only Islamic party that continued to be active in domestic politics while the others Islamic political parties were practically paralysed....

Find Another Essay On Given that 88% of Indonesians are Muslim, why is political Islam not dominant?

Do you think that the concept of organisational culture is a useful one in the real world? If so, why? If not, why not?

3912 words - 16 pages went, and someone suddenly wonders aloud why we need a whistle. We want a company where people find a better way, everyday, of doing things; and where by shaping their own work experience, they make their lives better and your company best. Far-fetched? Fuzzy? Soft? Naïve? Not a bit. This type of liberated, involved, excited, boundary-less culture that is present in successful start-up enterprises. It is unheard of in an institution our size

Why media is termed "consciousness industries"? How the media construct social and political attitudes that influences an individual's perception of their social world? Discuss with examples

945 words - 4 pages What is the thing or person that everyone must get access to everyday? It is probably not your parents or your friends, but the media. Teenagers listen to pop music and read magazines so that they will have same topic with their friends. Middle-aged people read newspapers to know about the current affairs. The elderly are entertained through watching soap operas. Through various forms of media such as television, newspaper, magazine, internet

Why African americans should not be given any reparations for slavery

2253 words - 9 pages for the wrong reasons. If you are going to oppose something then do it for the right reasons. That is I would like to tell you why slave reparations is a bad idea and give you good and reasonable reasons to oppose the idea of slave reparations. I will alsopresent you with possible solution that are going to insure that innocent people do not feed the greed of a few who themselves were never enslaved but claim to be suffering from it.II

Why Genetic Patents Are Not Ethical

2521 words - 10 pages also depends on what you believe are the motivations behind experimenting and your idea on people’s rights. Dr. Gabriel Ben-Dor, a political science professor in the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs believes that holding a genetic patent is not equivalent to owning humans, genetic patents promote research in DNA based inventions, and if you believe that humans have the right of an equal access to derived knowledge, patent holding is

Why All Men Are Not Created Equal

656 words - 3 pages Why All Men Are Not Equal As harsh as it sounds, not all men are created equal, especially in the United States. From the moment we are born, our lives may vary drastically from the lives of others. The types of lives we have may also determine our opportunities in life. People in America are based on their social standings and economic contribution. Some people are born into families that have a high social standing, others build up to become

Why Guns are not the Problem

1059 words - 5 pages the police officer had to open fire killing the man. Now, people will be saying for this incident that the police officer potentially saved a life. But what many people do not know is that these types of stories happen all the time and of these stories the only time they are shared with the public is if it’s a man being killed(“Off-Duty Officer Shoots Man During Attempted Walgreens Robbery”). Many believe because of the so many deaths that guns are

Henry David Thoreau once wrote, "Many men go fishing all of their lives without knowing that it is not fish they are after."

600 words - 2 pages Allison LakotaA.P English3/14/132°The great author Henry David Thoreau once wrote, "Many men go fishing all of their lives without knowing that it is not fish they are after." Thoreau's quote is trying to express that in life we sometimes try so hard to accomplish things and gain status that we tend to forget what we are really after is happiness. People often believe that certain things will bring them happiness such as money, jobs, and

Russia and Countries that Allow Discrimination to Freely Occur Should not be Given the Privilege to Host The Olympics

2133 words - 9 pages government is not taking action to intervene but instead supporting it. After studying these controversial issues we decided to title our persuasive communication, ‘Russia and countries that allow discrimination to freely occur should not be given the privilege to host The Olympics.’ We studied the origins of The Olympics, what it represents and its interrelation with events that overcame discrimination in the past. Our main stand point was that The

The Victims of Bullying Are Not The Only Ones that Need Help

901 words - 4 pages family. A bully, who has been abused by their family sees abuse as the only way of communication. It is true that family has a huge influence in a child’s life, and how they behave in front of a child could seriously affect them in many different ways. Self-centered and neglectful parents can also influence their child to be a bully. Some neglected children cravingattention reach for it any way they can because they do not receive any from

Abortion should NOT be illegal. This is a persuasive essay that shows the good that could come out of an abortion and why it should continue to be legal for women to CHOOSE to have an abortion

985 words - 4 pages . Whereas Judaism, Islam, and--of course--Atheism, say that "the fetus is not yet a full human being, and thus killing a fetus is not murder." The Roman Catholic Church is one of the most vocal of the religions. They say abortion is terminating a human life, but the other side disagrees.Now religious leaders, especially those from the Roman Catholic Church, are attempting to make their beliefs into laws for the entire country. They are attempting to

Why are acquisitions such a popular method of strategic development despite the evidence that they are often unsuccessful?

1298 words - 5 pages studies that are analysed below. This view is based on hard economic, strategic and financial evaluation of the acquisition proposal and estimates the potential value creation based on such an evaluation.BMW/Rover and Nokia case studies are the examples of acquisitions that have failed to be successful as it was planned at the beginning.The aim of the acquisitions with reference to both case studies was to create competitive advantages, strengthen

Similar Essays

Is The Ban On Muslim Headscarves In French Schools Justified? If So, Why? If Not, Why?

1585 words - 7 pages the schools and protecting Muslim girls’ rights in traditional communities, but actually a direct discrimination of the Islam faith, and thus, according to their reasoning, this ban in not justified. So far, I have sought to establish that the French ban on Muslim headscarves is actually an attempt to exclude Islam from public spaces, specifically public school, as their justifications are solely directed at Muslims and their beliefs; it is now

Why Technology Is Not That Great

661 words - 3 pages really they shouldn’t be seen this way. These kinds of sites should be shut down or a least be regulated in some way. Not all websites have explicit material and are a waste of time but many of the websites that people go on are classified as one of these. Television is another invention that can possibly destroy humanity. Parents love television sometimes because it keeps kids occupied, but so did the outdoors before TV was invented. Many parents

Are Christianity And Islam Really That Different?

3890 words - 16 pages detrimental to one's health. Those physically not able to fast are not required to fast. By cutting oneself off from worldly comforts, even for a short time, a fasting person gains true sympathy with those who go hungry as well as growth in one's spiritual life (Sawm 489).The last pillar is the Haj, or the major pilgrimage to Mecca. Mecca is the holy city of Islam, which is located in Saudi Arabia. The Haj is a journey that every adult Muslim must make at

Why Is Islam Perceived As A Threat To The West? What Justification Is There In Viewing Islam As A Political Threat To The West?

986 words - 4 pages filled with Heretics or Infidels. In modern times another reason for western people's apprehension towards Islam is that they do not understand it's people or customs, they may see a women wearing a veil and automatically think she is a grenade-toting terrorist.In the last 25 years there has been a resurgence of Islamic fundamentalism and many western people automatically link these groups to the mainstream Muslim population and state, this is