2.2. Cross – cultural managerial skills
Managers should possess a multicultural competence. Some critical cross-cultural skills for global managers are discussed below: add something
Intercultural communication skills- Managers should understand and respect the complexities of communication with people possessing various cultural values in order to be successful in managing global workforce. One of the most important issues in intercultural communication is correctly interpreting the context and content of a message (Steers et al., 2010). The transmission of a message is largely a challenge both for managers and employees, because several cultural; factors influence on communication ...view middle of the document...
, 2010). Thus, managers should understand the cultural differences among employees and recognize them. For example, UK has a low power distance and uncertainty avoidance dimensions according to Hofstede Center’s country scores. Therefore, an employee form UK would assumedly prefer participative management style. Further, it is discussed how different management styles vary across cultures.
Cosmopolitanism- One of the main issues in cross-cultural management is to understand cultural contradictions and dualities in order to manage rapidly increasing workforce diversity (Doz and Wilson, 2012). From this perspective, cosmopolitan view would help professionals working in global settings to understand cultural contradictions among employees and secure work motivation. Cosmopolitanism ideology indicates that all human groups according to ethnicity belong to a single society, which simultaneously is against essentialism of certain, exceeds the nation-state model, and represents openness and willingness to explore other cultural systems (Vertovec & Cohen, cited in Levy et al., 2007).
Rapid acculturation skills- Acculturation is the process of cultural alteration resulting from meeting different cultures (Steers et al., 2010). These skills are necessary for long-time assignments, because managers should learn how to adjust simultaneously to different environments.
Cultural synergy- Globalization challenges organization with teams which contains culturally different employees (Yeager & Nafukho, 2012). It brings to the field another significant skill of cultural synergy which for managers dealing with cultural diversity would be vital to build cross-cultural teams (Steers et al., 2010). Four types of divers teams are identified (Cohen and Bailey, 1997):
a) Teams including top managerial level executives who are dealing with overall performance of an organization.
b) Production work teams which work on manufacturing and services.
c) Project teams which are working on projects and may move through project within the organization.
d) Parallel teams dealing with specific tasks as problem solving or quality improvement which involve people from various locations.
Stahl et al. (2009) indicates the meta-analysis which shows that diverse teams with various cultural backgrounds have high team satisfaction than teams with similar cultural values. However, there is an inconsistency that diverse teams possess high performance; at the same time there is a possibility of conflict among members in culturally diverse teams. Potentially, individuals from various countries bring different perspectives and ideas to teams; therefore, the level of creativity is higher in multi-national teams than in intra-national teams (Cox & Blake, 1991, cited in Stahl et al., 2009). On the other hand, cross-cultural teams may have language barriers, difficulties in communication and other impediments which create conflict among members. Consequently, this conflict can affect...