Global Poisoning System Essay

1207 words - 5 pages

Abstract: This paper focuses on modeling the errors which normally degrade the accuracy of Global Poisoning System (GPS). The performance of the GPS is mainly affected by ionospheric errors. SiRF Star III single frequency receiver is used for collecting and projecting datum in World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84) co-ordinate form. To project the ellipsoidal model onto a map model, datum conversion from WGS-84 to Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) form is needed. The conversion introduces errors in the datum. The variation in the errors can be observed from day to night, area to area and also due to the seasonal changes. The datum is collected from Ameerpet region of Hyderabad, which is a heavily populated area with heavy traffic and tall buildings. The variation in the datum has been observed from afternoon to evening.

Keywords: GPS, WGS-84, UTM, Ionospheric errors, Northings and Eastings
The space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable location and time information in all weather and at all times and anywhere on or near the Earth with sub-meter accuracy is called Global Positioning System (GPS) [1]. It consists of a constellation of 28 satellites in six different orbits which give the information of the position of the user with sub meter accuracy [3]. If there are four or more GPS satellites in unobstructed line of sight with the receiver, accurate spatial co-ordinates can be obtained [2]. The datum obtained from the satellites, contain the information about the position and timing by calculating the the Keplerian orbit elements. The location information from GPS is based on the choice of coordinate system and datum [3]. The coordinate systems that are mostly used in GPS are World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84) and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). The datum provides the location and should be less erroneous [4].
The different types of errors that affect the performance of GPS are external errors like Ionospheric errors, Atmospheric errors, Satellite and Clocking errors, Multipath errors, Selective Availability and Anti Spoofing, of which the major error is the Ionospheric error in the radio propagation signal [2]. The conversion from the global coordinate system WGS-84 to the local UTM coordinates also introduces errors. The positioning accuracy tends to degrade as the baseline increases.
II. Ionospheric Errors
Ionosphere is the top most layer of the atmosphere which is composed of ionized particles and its characteristics indicate diurnal as well as seasonal variations. The change in characteristics of the layer may be the cause for the variation of the errors from day to night.
The Ionospheric errors in the GPS observations can significantly bias the computed user position. The ionosphere affects the electromagnetic waves that pass through it by inducing an additional transmission time delay, under worst case conditions, Ionospheric scintillations can rapidly vary amplitude and phase...

Find Another Essay On Global Poisoning System

Arsenic Essay

4034 words - 16 pages . Inorganic arsenicals are more likely to cause poisoning then arsenic derived organically. Arsenic is often used in products such as weed killers, insecticides, and rodenticides. Ingestion of any of these can cause severe poisoning. Most of the toxic effects of arsenic are on the digestive system, such as burning gastroenteritis. It can also cause hypotension and circulatory collapse in the cardiovascular system, and headaches and weak muscles

Vaccinations and Their Possible Link to Autism

1131 words - 5 pages ). The activated immune system produces a reaction which eventually causes immunologic memory and a heightened response to future exposure (Bauman, 2012). This means that the patient will be sick for a shorter period of time or that they will not become sick at all. That said it is believed that immunizing children could potentially cause autism through the action of the various chemicals within the vaccine (Ratajczak, 2001). This paper will

Deforestation: The Root to All of the Earth’s Environmental Concerns

861 words - 3 pages unplug the human from the life support system, wheel it away and stick a slot machine where the human once was. Sure, the slot machine may collect a ton of money, but you just traded a human life for some money. Second of all, Global Warming has been on everyone’s mind for a good amount of time. It is one of the major environmental issues that’s melting the polar ice caps and steadily increasing the weather temperature. Lots of people claim

grassroots boycott: The fight for human rights

826 words - 4 pages U.S., Grassroots boycott can affect the policies of multinational corporations by avoiding products that are made by mistreated workers and help reduce self-destruction of the overall global empire because people who live in poverty do not benefit from a “voluntary trade,” the ecosystem is dying out, and greed is built in the system of the third world. First, Grassroots boycotts can affect the strategies of multinational corporations by avoiding

Privately Owned Gasoline Powered Vehicles Should be Limited

1784 words - 7 pages around a country or the world without this incredible machine, for it provides freedom and mobility, even for people who do not own a car. Unfortunately, the car has a very destructive nature. Automobiles make a major contribution to air and noise pollution, depletion of fossil fuels, and to the abnormalities in children and adults due to lead poisoning. In order to stop this devastation, the use of gas powered automobiles must be limited by replacing

The Microchip: History and Making

2468 words - 10 pages to the human body when absorbed into the system or when exposed to. These problems can range from choking, vomiting and painful spasms of the anal muscles for cadmium poisoning (Healthline, 2005), disorders in mental and physical development (especially for children) (Mayo Clinic, 2011) for lead posisoning, to developing an abnormal immune system with little circulating lymphocytes and early puberty for PBB exposure (wikipedia, 2011). Even

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

993 words - 4 pages Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases    The United States releases twenty tons of carbon monoxide per person per year. Carbon Monoxide release is a result of burning fossil fuels with an insufficient amount of oxygen that causes the formation of carbon monoxide that pollutes our environment. Everyday fuel is burnt by cars, airplanes, large factories and manufacturing plants. This is causing a very large and deadly problem for our

Apartheid and the Environment

1242 words - 5 pages testing, the use of a military arsenal on blackcommunities, and the arms industry ARMSKOR have had detrimental effects on theSouth African people and on their environment.As the nature of the trade becomes more global and exploitative, so must ourefforts be more international in dimension and scope if we are to truly confront and challenge the poisoning of communities. We must see the similarities between what is happening to other countries and

Nuclear Energy is a dangerous distraction

1298 words - 6 pages defensive system. Nuclear weapons are not only demolishing peace but also cause massive destruction. For example after the heavy bomb dropped on Hiroshima, “everybody within half a mile of the centre of the blast was killed and 92 per cent of the city's structures were destroyed or damaged. Around 75,000 people were killed immediately, but many more died from radiation poisoning” (“Nuclear Weapons”).Can this destruction be thought of as rational or

WWI: Introducing Chemical Warfare and the Demise of Humanity

1311 words - 6 pages trap with promises of fame, glory, and a sense of belonging to a global effort, Owen exposed the truth behind the war through his poetry and consequentially revealed the hidden and much darker side of World War I. Nationalism was one of the four main causes leading up to World War I, and due to the hyper nationalism, each country wanted to assert its power and show that they are better than the opposing country. This included advancements in

Racism and Social Injustice

1494 words - 6 pages practices” (Correa Bernier 3). Moreover, health disparities exist in the mentioned unsafe and unhealthy physical environments. Hazards and pollutants are apparent in a variety of outcomes. Possible outcomes include asthma, cancer and chemical poisoning (Gee and Payne-Sturges 2004: 1647). Furthermore, “Although debated, the main hypothesis explaining these disparities is that disadvantaged communities encounter greater exposure to environmental

Similar Essays

"Global Warming: Time To Act": A Persuasive Paper On Why People Should Stop Global Warming

1580 words - 6 pages heating bills. Driving gas-burning vehicles will also cost much more. It will eventually be impossible to use the expensive and inefficient system that is based on burning fossil fuels (Miller). Saving money is another important reason to stop global warming.Remaining healthy and safe is a very important thing to most people. If global warming continues unchecked, then any person could become susceptible to the disease, starvation or flooding

Hydrocarbons In Our Lives Essay

1860 words - 7 pages due to the quality of their health, which poses a risk of increasing the effects of CO poisoning, and unfortunately, these effects are often irreversible (U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 2002). As well as effecting O2 transportation, CO can also affect the respiratory and nervous systems. Exposure of CO in the respiratory system can cause shortness of breath, excessive exhaustion, especially during intensive

Food Safety In Singapore: Enforcing Hygiene Safety Standards

680 words - 3 pages gloves, especially plastic ones and there may also be protests by environmentalists, as more use of plastic materials may be costly towards global warming. The list of endless problems has its fair share of solutions too. However, “Prevention is better than cure.”, it is always better to enforce hygiene safety standards now than mourn for the death of a food-poisoning victim next time.

Mercury In Fish Essay

1813 words - 7 pages around 35,000.Mercury Poisoning-Grassy Narrows, CanadaThe Grassy Narrows Indian Reserve in northwestern Ontario is home to a group of Ojibway people named the Asubpeeschoseewagong. In the 1970's, they were told their staple food, fish from the English River System, have been contaminated by several tonnes of inorganic mercury that a pulp and paper plant upstream, in Dryden, have dumped into the water (Carter "Cover"). As a result of this, not only