‘How has Globalization shaped Energy Systems in Emerging Economies and the Global South? Illustrate your answer in reference to your chosen case study country.’
1. Definition of Globalization
After the cold war, word ‘globalization’ was commonly used at a time of unprecedented interconnectedness when advanced nations experienced a ruthless development by exploiting energy resources and stressing culture forms in developing countries. To identify the definition of ‘globalization’, it is significant to clarify its appearance as well as implication.
An outstanding mechanism frequently used to interpret ‘Globalization’ is the ‘World Economy’. Back to the colonial age, the coinstantaneous behaviors of worldwide capitals and energy resources flowed from colonies to western countries has been regarded as the rudiment of the economic geography (Jürgen and Niles, 2005). Nowadays, the global economy was dominated by transnational corporations and banking institutions mostly located in developed countries. However, it is apparently that countries with higher level of comprehensive national strength are eager for a bigger market to dump surplus domestic produce and allocate energy resources in a global scale, thus leads to a world economic integration. This module was supported by several historical globalists (Paul Hirst, Grahame Thompson and Deepak Nayyer) ‘their position is that globalization is nothing new but more fashionable and exaggerate, a tremendous amount of internationalization of money and trade in earlier periods is hardly less than today.’ (Frans J Schuurman 2001:64).
Another important factor promoted globalization is called the ‘World Politics’. Foreign policymakers are facing a challenge of a fundamental change in nowadays nation’s political strategy when multilateral activities overweight bilateral activities in globalization. For instance, America, once the greatest power after the cold war, implement its imperialistic foreign politics by create a peaceful, democratic Europe with all its Europe allies, besides, balance the power in Eurasia through rooted democracy in Philippian, Indonesia and Taiwan. Moreover, western countries frequently made use of powerful foreign cultures as a tool to impose upon the native cultures.
Thus, an irreconcilable contestation about the definition of globalization was often listed in previous literatures. Opinions diversified in various realms and differed from optimistic to pessimistic. The definition of globalization below illustrates the outwards manifestation of this phenomenon and its implication - a degree of homogenization.
Globalization is an irreversible tendency which implement an integration of economy, politics, culture and technology regardless of the restrictions of time zones (distance) and national-border (space). International political-economic structure has been changed through globalization, as more countries with higher level of comprehensive national strength occupied leading...