Globalization is a confusing concept. For some it conjures up images of electronic communications: an email, global media, and popularization of mobile phones. For others it is about trade: the ability to buy coca-cola in rural villages in Africa. For yet others it is about misappropriation and greed: the suicide of Indian peasant farmers ruined by agri-business and genetically modified seeds. From now on, I will present the negative effects of globalization.
?gGlobalization?h is a very uneven process, with unequal distribution of benefits and losses. The problem is that of who gains and loses from the potential benefits. This imbalance leads to polarization or separation between the few rich countries or individuals that gain benefits, and the many other countries that lose out or are marginalized. Globalization, polarization, wealth concentration and marginalization are therefore linked through the same process. In this process, investment resources, growth and modern technology are focused on a few countries (mainly in North America, Europe, Japan and East Asian NICs). The basic facts are known: 20% of the world?fs population live in absolute poverty, with an income of less than $1 per day. Surviving on less than $2 a day is a reality for almost half the people on the planet.
?iA majority of developing countries are excluded from the process, or are participating in it in marginal ways that are often detrimental to their interests; for example, import liberalization may harm their domestic producers and financial liberalization may cause instability.?j
?@?iThe uneven and unequal nature of the present globalization is manifested in the fast growing gap between the world?fs rich and poor people and between developed and developing countries; and by the large differences among nations in the distribution of gains and losses.?j
As a result, the number of hungry people around the?@world keeps rising every year and poverty is becoming increasingly?@feminized (70% of all the poor are women).?@'Free trade has been free for business and industry, but not?@for women and the poor'.
?@The Human Development Report, 1996 showed that over the past three decades, only 15 countries...