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Gluten Content, Gas Retention And Physical Properties Of Starch In Selected Flours

1980 words - 8 pages

Gluten content, gas retention and physical properties of starch in selected flours.Abstract: This experiment has three parts; properties of starch, gluten content of flour and gas retention of doughs. One objective of this experiment is to assess the properties of starch using a microscope before and after gelatinisation. Potato starch was found to be the quickest forming gel and pre-gelatinised starch was the most viscous. The second part of this experiment measured gluten quantity of four flours. Rice flour was found to contain no gluten and is perfect for those with celiac disease but not for baking due to lack of elasticity. Gas retention in doughs is closely related to gluten quantity. There was some fluctuation of the results in the third part of the experiment making the data somewhat unreliable. This could be due to gas leakage and human error. However the data shows that gluten flour produces the most gas, followed by bread flour, then cake flour and lastly rice flour. This data is used to assess the suitability of flours to the baking of breads and cakes.Introduction: This experiment was divided into three components. The first method examined the properties of starch granules. The second method assessed gluten quantity and the last measured gas retention in doughs. These are labelled part A, B and C respectively.Starch consists of amylose and amylopectin. "The overall behaviour of a starch is the relative amounts of amylose and amylopectin" (McWilliams, 2001). Mostly starches contain more amylopectin than amylose. Amylopectin makes up 75% of the starch in cereals (McWilliams, 2001).The size of granules varies for different types of starch. Wheaten starch granules measure10-35m this is small in comparison to potato starch, which is approximately 100m (McWilliams, 2004). I believe there will be a difference in gelation rate across differing sizes of granules.Starch is an important thickening agent in cooking. To act as a thickener it must be heated and hydrated. Water enters the granules and causes them to swell therefore less water is outside the granules and the substance becomes viscous. This process is called gelatinisation. Part A of this experiment looks at the shape and structure of starch granules before and after gelatinisation. In part A of the experiment I expect to see loss of structure upon gelatinisation in all samples due to swelling and some splitting of granules. Part B tests the quantity of gluten ina) Bread-making flourb) Cake-making flourc) Rice flour andd) Gluten flour (control)According to McWilliams, bread-making flour contains about 11.8% protein, cake-making flour contains around 7.5%, rice flour contains between 6.5-7% and gluten flour has added gluten, which raises the level of protein to approximately 41%.The gluten content of flour is important to Chefs, food manufacturers and especially those with celiac disease. This condition is...

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