During the last decade of the twentieth century, the word ‘globalization’ has become an increasingly prominent feature of political, social, and economic discussion in academic and policymaking circles, as well as in the media. The processes and outcomes of globalization drew attention and debates that had one thing in common. The research shows that nearly everyone agrees that globalization is a trend that is changing the face of the world, and as a result the world society lives in a more ‘globalized’ world. Nearly two and a half decades passed since 1990s, and studies have been conducted to examine the causes and consequences of globalization. Moreover, nearly every person experiences some type of globalization and can testify firsthand the effects it has on their life, society, and the state. The analysis of the effects that globalization dynamics have on the world society indicates that globalization has a significant positive impact via spreading opportunities and wealth across nations, stimulating innovation and productivity, enhancing the economic development of poorer countries, and helping to improve living standards.
Theories of Globalization
There are various theoretical frameworks that create the foundation for understanding of any social or economic phenomenon. Since globalization occurs on several levels there are different theories that explain various aspects of it. The analysis of various factors that facilitate the creation of interconnected and interdependent global society shows that globalization advances in several directions simultaneously: historical, political, economic, social, and cultural (Friedman, 2005). Therefore, the fact that globalization can be explained from different perspectives accounts for the existence of the whole array of theories that explain the emergence of a global society.
Barrie Axford, in his book Theories of Globalization (2013) categorized globalization theories according to the perspective used for creating frameworks for explaining the phenomenon and divided theories into groups that view globalization through the frameworks of space, culture, communication, history, capitalism and economy, political science and governance, geography, and anthropology. Therefore, there is a wealth of perspectives that help to examine globalization and its impact. Lechner (2001) divided theories according to the nature of globalization processes and offered three broad categories: (a) world-system theory (economic drivers of globalization), (b) world policy theory (political and legal drivers of globalization); (c) world culture theory (culture and communication as globalization drivers).
In Robinson’s (2004) work A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class, and State in a Transnational State does not provide an organized classification of globalization theories. He presents a variety of theories that explain different aspects of globalization from the standpoints of Marxism,...