The PLUREL project, FP6 programme (2007-11) tackled three main issues; the first one regarding the difficulties in controlling changes in land use in many EU countries. The PLUREL project therefore analysed the levels of organisation, democratic control and fragmentation of governance structures across archetypal rural/urban regions. The second issue regarded problems in spatial planning and urban sprawl, brought about by the NIMBYism mentality, and finally the issue of financial and taxation mechanisms which are also drivers of urban sprawl. The results showed that there is a need for strong democratic governments to manage market forces and aim at avoiding fiscal incentives which might ...view middle of the document...
According to statistics, Brussels is one of the richest cities which does not correspond to the income distribution. Administrative regions need to manage their resources and incentivise the development of regional innovation strategies. (Tosics, 2011)
The last project, termed EUROCITIES Metropolitan Areas Working Group, was founded in the hope that FUAs in the future, will grow to prove more important than administrative regions. This project incorporated results from the aforementioned METROGOV and URBACT projects, elucidating how zero-sum game functions such as waste handling and sewage plants, should be dealt with by fixed boundary organisations at FUA level. In contrast to this, the results also yielded that functions of a win-win nature such as marketing and joint economic planning, are possibly dealt with by flexible solutions on the broader economic cooperation level.
Innovative practices to improve territorial governance in urban areas
This section of the research paper, as explained by Tosics, delivers an overview of innovative practices which aim to improve territorial governance in urban areas. The term 'Innovative' in this case, stands for the fact that the four models which will be mentioned, are based on pure scientific results which came out from the aforementioned European Projects on governance. Therefore, the roots of these models may have been based on earlier governance projects undertaken in various cities, but nevertheless, the later models were studied and logically analysed.
Back in 1989, David Harvey wrote " In recent years, urban governance has become increasingly preoccupied with the exploration of new ways in which to foster and encourage local development and employment growth. Such an entrepreneurial stance contrasts with the managerial practices of earlier decades which primarily focussed on the local provision of services, facilities and benefits to urban populations." which furthermore illustrates the eve changing dimensions of urban governance.
Formal, designated metropolitan governance model
Formal models of governance have long existed, however in this paper, the governance model will be explained through results obtained from the METREX (the European network of metropolitan regions and areas). This model aims for structured and predefined, city/region boundaries. Metropolitan areas need competences and process in order to achieve effective integration in social, economic, environmental and spatial planning. METREX classified three city/region models: Comprehensive model (elected authorities for planning and implementation) ; Core Power Model (elected authorities for planning of a specific range of issues) ; Agency/Voluntary model (appointed metropolitan agencies with strategic planning responsibilities). The METREX Practice Benchmark was set up to enable regions to judge their strengths and weaknesses in relation to metropolitan governance. The broader the region around the city core, the less...