Government Affiliation and Cloning
The theory to alter and duplicate a human being first arose in the early 1900s. It became widely controversial since the entrance of the experiments on real animals by the 1990s. Influenced by its citizens, the governments all over the world stepped in to regulate the new process by establishing specific laws tackling the issue. Each government differed from the others, and hence, each national law varies from another. However, attempts were made to unify the regulations under international circumstances in organizations such as the United Nations. Still undergoing conformation, the effort to halt cloning failed to stay constant, and would continue to change in the future.
Since the successful cloning of the sheep Dolly in Roslin Institution of Scotland on July 5, 1996 (Peters, 2003, p.161), governments wrestled with the ideal of human cloning. Thrust with the responsibility to regulate a new form of artificial mammalian reproduction, and possibly human reproduction, the government became the deciding factor amidst the storm of controversy. Dolly signifies the first mammal cloned from the fully differentiated cell, which already had the genes of its function fully expressed. It allowed the duplication of another individual from any living cell of body. Ian Wilmut announced and patented the Roslin Technique, the method to clone Dolly, on February 22, 1997 and explained the details on the issue of Nature five days later (Peters, 2003, p.161). The reaction was immediate. Within hours of Wilmut’s announcement, the Church of Scotland released its rebuttal, criticizing the event as unethical. Likewise, the world was quick to establish its stance, pronouncing the cloning of human as morally wrong. Many theologians and ethicists released their own statements, ranging from the simple declaration that it is against God’s will, to clone to the more complicated theories of violating personal freedom and identity. It was not long until the governments involved themselves in the matter, having been pressured by organizations such as The United Methodist Genetic Science Task Force to ban the practice of cloning humans (Peters, 2003,
Government Affiliation 2
p.160). Laws pertaining to the restriction of human cloning were quickly established and enforced over the world; however, some countries resisted the movement more than the others, creating a gradient of varying laws on cloning.
Since the declaration of the success of Dolly, United States has undergone many changes. During the Clinton administration, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission drew a charter to prohibit the creation of a child through cloning. The act extended to March 10, 2001, and defeated cloning advocate Richard Seed’s proposal to raise a fund for human cloning. After the succession of the Bush Jr. administration, the United House of Representatives voted and banned all human cloning, successfully passing a law to imprison as well as...