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Government And Politics Chapter 2 Modern Ideologies And Political Philosophy

1628 words - 7 pages

Chapter TWOModern Ideologies and Political PhilosophyI. IdeologiesIdeology is a set of ideas that are related and that modify one another; that is, an organized set of ideas about something.From the personal point of view, an ideology helps us to make sense reasonably easily and quickly of the varied political questions that come to our attention.Publicly, in politics, we are typically concerned to convince others that a policy we favor is the right one.Ideologies are developed and maintained because of their usefulness to individuals in responding to events and their utility in public political agument.II. American IdeologiesTend to be more loosely organized2 main ideologies:American liberalism is the rather loose ideology known in the United States as "conservatism." It is a variant of the more general ideology of liberalism and has relatively little to do with the more general ideology of conservatisms; it is particularly suspicious of governmental intervention to make people more equal but is often wiling to entrust government with power to maintain morality.American conservatism is the rather loose ideology known in the US as "liberalism." It is only a variant of the more generally ideology of liberalism; it is particularly concerned to make people equal, and it is relatively willing to entrust government with power to bring this about; it is also particularly concerned to maintain freedom of expression.Compared with American Conservatism, American liberalism is: more concerned about inequality, more inclined to use the power of the government to make conditions for people more equal (liberals are more willing to see a larger government, supplied by higher taxes), more inclined generally to use the power of the government to achieve a diverse set of things they view as good ends, less concerned about maintenance of public values and less supportive of using governmental power to ban such things like drug use and prostitution, opposed to restrictions on abortions, more reluctant to maintain large military force and use military power abroad.American liberalism and American conservatism are variants of a more general and well worked out ideology known simply as liberalism.Both ideologies are hodgepodges, representing marriages of political convenience, and it is difficult to find internal coherence among the various parts of either one.Increased concerned with ideologies: American labor leaders concern with freedom of expression because of this issue's association with the redistribution of income in Amer. Liberalism. Americans concerned about high taxes have probably picked up more concern because of the juxtaposition of these positions in Amer. Conservatism.III. LiberalismLiberalism is an ideology positing that the most important goal of politics is to help individuals develop their capacities to the fullest. To this end, people should be regulated and aided by governments as little as possible, so that they will learn from experience of...

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