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Government Testing On Human Subjects And The Intricacies Of Informed Consent

2478 words - 10 pages

The intense stimulant lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) can briefly possess the mind of an individual who ingests it. As a result of its intensity and capability to open the "entryways of recognition," LSD could be violent to the psyche (Baker, 1999). It can seize the user's brain, tenderly uncovering life's dormant truths, or it can turn angry, decreasing the user to a state of complete panic. Obviously, LSD is not to be taken carelessly. This makes dosing an unknowing individual with it, particularly one who isn't familiar with LSD's properties, an especially frightful act. An individual unacquainted with LSD and completely unaware they had been dosed could be brought to the edge of mental ...view middle of the document...

The CIA executive requested all records of the studies deliberately shredded in 1973 (Miller, 2003).
To what extent did the government have an obligation to inform the research subjects of possible genetic damage to their future offspring? Where there any infractions of law or statutes? If so, what law or statute takes precedence?
Using LSD on innocent subjects to test its viability as a military or intelligence weapon is deliberately doing harm. Psychological harm was frequently reported in the testing: “subjects were observed to sweat, tremble, stutter, bite their lips, groan, and dig their fingernails into their flesh. These were characteristic rather than exceptional responses to the experiment” (Milgram, 1963).
After World War II, an audit of experimentations conducted by German scientists established the Nuremberg Code of 1948. It proposed that human subject experimentation ought to just include subjects who give informed consent and volunteer to take part (Katz, 1996). In 1964, the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki followed the Nuremburg Code. It spelled out some additional provisions, for example, the recommendation that research on animals ought to go before human subject trials. It is important that even today these stringent standards don't completely prohibit risky human subject experimentation practices (Faden, 1986).
In medical research that includes human subjects, every potential subject must be sufficiently educated of the points, techniques, whom is funding the testing, any institutional affiliations of the scientist, the foreseen benefits and potential dangers of the study and the distress it may cause (Koppelman, 2000). The potential subject must be educated of the right to decline participation in the study or to withdraw consent to partake whenever they choose, without repercussion. After guaranteeing that the potential subject has comprehended the scope of the study, the doctor must then look for the potential subject's uninhibitedly given consent, ideally in written form (Faden, 1986).
When, if ever, should the information provided by research subjects be made available to interested agencies and/or authorities for nonmedical reasons? If so, is this practice ethical?
The behavior of biomedical research community that requires the study of people ensnares an assortment of moral concerns relating to such values as respect, substantial honesty, independence, and security. These moral concerns have been deciphered into a complex administrative device in the USA, holding particular legitimate procurements concerning such matters as member safety measures, informed consent, and privacy (Coleman, 2005). Securing the rights and welfare of experimentation subjects is focused around regarding the applicable moral standards that underlie such security, including the main of beneficence. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research states that "persons are...

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