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Great Britain Essay

2520 words - 10 pages

UNIVERSITATEA "BABEȘ-BOLYAI" CLUJ-NAPOCAFACULTATEA DE ISTORIE SI FILOSOFIEMarea Britanie(1945 - 1989)Cristian TimoceIstoria Artei, anul IIÎn obţinerea victoriei comune la sfârşitul celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial, meritul incontestabil îl avea America şi Rusia, însă Anglia s-a remarcat prin faptul că Angliei îi revenea gloria de a fi luptat singură în acea perioadă lipsită de orice speranţă. Anglia a reuşit să transforme momentele ei cele mai tragice în apogeul existenţei ei. Anglia a reuşit să iasă victorioasă din acest conflict însă oarecum epuizată. Pentru a câstiga acest război, Anglia făcuse sacrificii enorme, starea de spirit îmbogăţindu-se dar din punct de vedere economic aceasta era terminată. Deşi a pierdut circa 400.000 oameni, această cifră reprezenta doar jumătate din pierderile suferite în primul război mondial şi numai o cincime din numărul morţilor înregistraţi de Rusia. Amploarea distrugerilor suferite de oraşele din Regatul Unit nu se poate compara cu cele din Germania. În anul 1945 Marea Britanie s-a aşezat la masa tratativelor diplomatice deşi ea nu se putea compara ca mărime şi putere cu Statele Unite sau URSS. Principala problemă a Marii Britanii era aceea că economia sa nu dispunea de resursele necesare pentru a putea fi pe măsura celor două mari supraputeri. Războiul şi-a lăsat amprenta asupra Marii Britanii prin faptul că s-au agravat problemele economice. Distrugerea caselor, a fabricilor şi a vaselor comerciale a provocat o pierdere enormă. O mare parte din veniturile deţinute în străinătate au fost vândute pentru a se plăti importurile necesare pe durata războiului, aşadar veniturile din străinătate au scăzut, fapt care a dus la un declin economic. Datorită efectelor produse de război, industria britanică nu a mai putut fi modernizată şi retehnologizată. În 1945 singura posibilitate pentru Marea Britanie era aceea de a cheltui toată valuta forte pentru acoperirea datoriilor, nemaiputând să importe lucrurile de bază de care depindea economia. În privinţa aceasta, ajutorul american era vital, mulţi politicieni britanici devenind nemulţumiţi de dependenţa tot mai accentuată a Marii Britanii, de aceste împrumuturi a americanilor. [1: Alan Farmer, Marea Britanie: Politica externă şi colonială 1939-1964, Editura ALL, Bucureşti, 1997, p. 48.][2: Ibidem, p. 49.]În timpul războiului , naţiunile care făceau parte din sfera britanică au dat dovadă de o solidaritate extraordinară, dar în Africa...

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