Greenhouse gas selected:
· Water vapor -
· Carbon dioxide -
· Methane -
· Nitrous oxide -
The earth is surrounded by a mixture of gases. These gases consist of Nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and other gases (1%). The gases make up the earth’s atmosphere which protects us from space. The 1% of gases are known as greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are compounds that are capable of absorbing longwave radiation, or known as infrared radiation. There are 4 main greenhouse gases; Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor and nitrous oxide. The most common greenhouse gas is Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is found everywhere around the world, from the respiration via the lungs or burning of fossil fuels. The amount of carbon dioxide has risen from 180 million to 400 million (parts per million) over the last 50 years’ states (Nasa. 2017). Alongside this, (Nasa. 2010) also shows the increase in carbon dioxide also corresponds with global temperature (Figure 1.1). Therefore, the increase in carbon dioxide concentration will slowly affect the global temperature thus leading to global warming.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas as it absorbs infrared radiation and emits it either back to space or to earth unlike common gases like oxygen or nitrogen. Carbon Dioxide is produced by reparation from mammals and by the burning of fossils fuels e.g. factory/manufacturers. Fossil fuel is used to generate electricity, power vehicles, power industries and heat homes etc. These make up most of the carbon dioxide present. The CO2 emitted from these factors travel up into the atmosphere which is trapped by the gases then it is rather radiated back to earth’s surface making its temperature warmer or sending it to the depth of space. Consequently, if more heat is radiated back to earth, it could lead to lead to melting polar caps and rising sea levels. This is known as the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse effect is the absorption of solar radiation by gases as CO2 leading to atmosphere warning. Therefore, the increase in carbon dioxide could potentially harm the global temperature thus leading to global warming.
Carbon dioxide is a triatomic heteronuclear atom as it consists of more than 1 element (Carbon + oxygen). It is a triatomic as it consists of 3 atoms ‘(C)’ ‘(O2)’. Comparing Carbon and oxygen’s electronegativity, the difference is 1.0 (C = 2.5) (O2 = 3.5) thus meaning that oxygen has a stronger bond attraction for the shared electrons. Also, carbon dioxide is a polar covalent as its difference isn’t higher than 1.7 (Figure 1.2). The electron configuration of carbon is (Figure 1.4) and for oxygen (Figure 1.5). Carbon dioxide is structured as a linear model (Figure 1.3). It is structured like this to capture shortwave radiation emitted from earth as it vibrates in a vertical motion. Thus, the absorption of infrared radiation from CO2 concentration links to the increase of the global temperature as it emits (IR) back to earth warming it.
Figure 1.2 ...