Group 14 Of The Periodic Table Of The Elements.

1209 words - 5 pages

-General summary of elementsCarbonSymbol - CAtomic Number- 6Atomic Mass- 12.0Electrons per shell- 2, 4Carbon is a solid, non-metallic element that is found in stars, comets, and the atmospheres of most planets. It is naturally occurring, and is found in three different forms. They are: graphite, amorphous, and diamond. Artificial diamonds are made by the application of heat and pressure (> 125 knar) in the presence of a catalyst such as iron, chromium or platinum. It seems that the metal melts on the carbon surface, the graphite dissolves in the metal film, and the less soluble diamond precipitates out. The introduction of nitrogen as an impurity gives yellowish diamonds while boron impurities give bluish colors. Graphite is one of the softest known materials, yet diamonds are one the hardest. Carbon is also present in our atmosphere as carbon dioxide, which is a by-product of mammal respiratory, and a fuel for photosynthesis. It is also found naturally dissolved into natural waters, but is not present in distilled or soft water. Carbon can also be combined with oxygen to form CO2, which is an easily compressible gas that can be used as a source of energy. In a carbon isotope, 14C, which is naturally produced in the air by nitrogen, the production is dependent on things like the variations in solar output and the strength of the Earth's magnetic field, which acts to shield out the radiation that produces 14C.Silicone Symbol-Si Atomic number-14 Atomic Mass- 28.1 Electrons per shell- 2, 8, 4Silicone is most commonly known for implants, solar lights, microchips, and lasers. It is a solid and semi-metallic, and dark grey with a bluish tinge. Silicone makes 25.7% of the earths crust and is the second most abundant element besides oxygen. It is found largely as silicone oxides such as sand, but it is also found in Quartz, rock, crystal, agate, flint, Jasper, and opal. Silicon minerals such as asbestos, feldspar, clay and mica, also contain silicone. Diatoms in both fresh and salt water extract silica from the water to use as a component of their cell walls. If silicaceous dust is breathed, you can develop a very serious long disease known as silicosis. Silicon is present in the sun and stars and is a principal component of a class of meteorites known as aerolites. Silicon is important in plant and animal life. Diatoms in both fresh and salt water extract silica from the water to use as a component of their cell walls. Silicon is an important ingredient in steel. Silicon carbide is one of the most important abrasives. These range from liquids to hard, glasslike solids with many useful properties. Elemental silicon transmits more than 95% of all wavelengths of infrared and has been used in lasers to produce coherent light at 456nm.Germanium Symbol- Ge Atomic mass-72.64 Atomic number-32 Electrons per shell- 2, 8, 18, 4Germanium, a naturally occurring element, is a non-metallic grayish white solid at 298k. The element is a gray-white metalloid, and in...

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