Diabetes is one of the leading chronic causes of deaths in children and adolescent’s in the United States. Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases that is characterized by high levels of glucose in the bloodstream resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action or even both (Overview, 1). Diabetes is a serious health issue and can be associated with premature death or serious complications. Timely diagnosed treatment of diabetes can delay or prevent any onset of long-term complications, such as damage to blood vessels, kidneys, gums, skin, teeth, and many other complications (Overview, 1). Diabetes can be difficult to deal with during the time of adolescence. People with diabetes or those who have family members with diabetes should be very well informed (Cho, 1).
There are many forms of diabetes such as Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, gestational Diabetes and a few others. Type 1 and 2 Diabetes is becoming more frequent in children and adolescents. Oklahoma has an overall ranking of a 44 percentile in diabetes from the years 1996-2013 (Core, 1). According to the published national diabetes fact sheet from 2011, 25.8 million children and adults in the United States of America have diabetes. There are 18.8 million people diagnosed, 7 million people undiagnosed, and approximately 79 million that are pre-diabetic. The ratio of diabetes in children and adolescent, under the age of 20, is about 1 in every 400 children have diabetes (Statistics, 1).
Type 1 Diabetes can account for five to ten percent of diagnosed cases of diabetes, although it is the leading cause of diabetes in children of all ages. Usually Type 1 Diabetes affects children under the age of ten years old (Overview, 1). Each year more than 13,000 young people are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The onset of type 1 diabetes is mostly acute with children and in young adolescents; they may be present with ketoacidosis as a first indication of Type 1 Diabetes (Overview, 1). Ketoacidosis is a serious condition that can lead to diabetic coma or even mortality. When your cells do not get the glucose they need for energy, your body begins to burn fat for energy, which then produces ketones. Some symptoms that can occur for type 1 diabetes can start years before actually symptoms show up. They can become apparent when most of the beta-cell population is destroyed. Early symptoms can occur such as increased thirst and urination, constant hunger, blurred vision, weight loss and feeling very tired (Overview, 2). The basic features of type 1 diabetic management are insulin administration, physical activity, blood glucose testing, and nutrition management (Overview, 2).
During type 1 diabetes, blood glucose levels must be maintained. The plasma blood glucose ranges before meals for toddlers and preschoolers should be around 100-180. School age (ages 6-12) children should have a range from 90-180. Adolescents (ages 13-19) should range from 90-130 (Overview, 4). Although goals...