Historical interpretations relating to small wars in the post Napoleonic period in relation to insurgent guerrilla warfare in urban and agrarian societies across the globe share universal themes. These commonalities will be explored relating why combatants in guerrilla warfare fight. Moreover, what objectives guerrilla leaders wanted to achieve with their theories of social revolution. The works discussed are Mao Tse-tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, Ernesto Che Guevara, Guerilla Warfare, and Carlos Marighella, Minimanual of The Urban Guerrilla. All three of these historical leaders were well-educated men who were social reformers. All concerned with inequalities among their people. All ...view middle of the document...
Rarely are cultural norms, values, and social unrest attributed to the outbreak of wars. However, Mao, Che, and Marighella sought out to address dire living conditions with lack of food, no running water, no public services, poor education and health care, no paved roads or sewage systems. They wanted social and political systems to change and change fast. As a result, small guerrilla wars were waged.
These three books span the globe from China, Brazil, Cuba, and Bolivia. Consequently, these books influenced Ho Chi Minh in Viet Nam and numerous other underground movements around the world.
Mao Tse-tung the Ruler of Red China and transformer of culture founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Mao after ten years of fighting the Nationalist army of Chiang Kai-shek retreated from battle to write On Guerilla Warfare. Mao successfully used his theories on guerrilla warfare and ousted the Nationalists Chinese from the mainland.
Samuel B. Griffith II, translator of On Guerilla Warfare, explained by “Recognizing the fundamental disparity between agrarian and urban societies, Mao advocated unorthodox strategies that converted deficits into advantages: using intelligence provided by sympathetic peasant population; substituting deception, mobility, and surprise for superior firepower; using retreat as an offensive move; and educating the inhabitants on the ideological basis of the struggle” (Back cover).
Imagine 400 million persons living at the bare subsistence level experiencing floods, droughts, epidemics, owning no land of their own (pg. 13). China was a Feudal system rotten with unfair tax collectors, bandits, and unfair landlords who took advantage of men, women, and children with unfair labor demands. Mao observed from his youth a feudal system combined with a semicolonial system from imperialistic foreign powers from the French, British, Germans, and Russians. Land reform in his opinion was necessary and the process of expropriation and redistribution of wealth was necessary to remedy the imbalance of power and resources among his people. Class warfare and revolt were necessary because of the nature of severe inequality. Mao had the backing of his people. The Nationalist were defeated who supported the gentry landowners and foreign powers who sought to overtake the mainland.
Create a new China based on Russian Revolutionists, Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin doctrines. China’s economic sector and standard of living was in turmoil. A feudal state with advancing precolonial eyes of world powers who wanted to claim the countries resources. These foreign powers as Mao saw it wanted to oppress and exploit the people. Mao wanted to stop these foreign invaders from controlling his country.
Mao Tse-Tung was a military strategist. He foresaw, along with Chinese general, Chu Teh that the Communists Party theory of revolution based out of Moscow with an urban industrial proletariat base...