Guns, Germs, And Steel, By Jared Diamond

1473 words - 6 pages

After reading Guns, Germs, and Steel, the five main points are domestication of plants and animals, food production, government, innovation, and germs. The domestication of plants and animals helped determine a society's supply of food. First of all, there is the domestication of plants. Domesticated plants were used for food, clothing, and traction. There is about 200,000 wild plant species, but human only eat only a few thousands of those wild plant species, and on top of that, only a few hundred are even domesticated. Many wild plant species do not quality because the vast majority of wild plants are unsuitable for domestication: they have a woody structure, they are unable to produce edible food, and roots and leaves are also inedible. The Fertile Cresent, containing comparatively moist and fertile soil, had the olive, fig, and grape. These plants were among the easiest to cultivate out of all the wild fruit species. The Fertile Cresent was the center of food production in the world, the rise of agriculture, and one of the earliest places of independent domestication. It was the site of origin of many of the world's major crops and most of the major domesticated animals. Thoughout the world, there are only 14 species of big terrestrial mammals that were domesticated. For instance, the Fertile Cresent had four species: the goat, sheep, pig, and cow. These four species happened to be four out of the five major species of large domestic mammals. Domesticated animals were used for food, clothing, and transportation. The domestication of plants and animals held food supplies to maintain the food supplies, large sedentary societies, and technology. These things further progressed into food production, political organizations, ideas and inventions, and epidemic diseases.

Next, food production played an important role maintaining the power and wealth especially life. It is the stimulation or growth of groups as small as tribes up to civilizations as large as countries. There were five main contributing factors that caused hunter-gatherers to convert over: decline in wild food, increased availability of domesticable wild plants made plant domestication more rewarding, developing technologies that food production would depend on, the two-way link between the rises of human population density and food production, and geographic boundaries between food producers and hunter-gatherers. In a country, agriculture and domesticated plants and animals were necessary to supply their citizens with a suitable quantity of calories, proteins, and nutrients. The Fertile Cresent is a good reference for showing its food production. There was plenty of agriculture among domesticated plants, and the Fertile Cresent had four major domesticated animals. Food production excelled to high population densities, political organizations, and many other things that led an increase in power because it involves inputs of labor, generated food surpluses, and requires people to...

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