D.J. Dowrick (”Earthquake Risk Reduction”in Wiley) explains that seismic hazard is any physical phenomenon associated with an earthquake that may produce adverse effects on human activities. Earthquakes occur very suddenly without any warning. Thus, earthquake not only destructs people’s living environment, but also affects people’s mental health. People are more scared of earthquake. In 2010, there are two severe earthquakes, which are Haiti Earthquake and Chile Earthquake. Both of these two earthquakes produced the various impact considerably across countries and regions. The purpose of this essay is to analyse those two earthquakes according to knowledge such as why they occur, how strong they are, and what the impact they made. Even though people still can not predict earthquake, through analyse earthquakes, they can prevent it bring huge losses.
2. Geotectonic setting and local earthquake hazard of Haiti and Chile
It is important to know the geotectonic setting of Haiti and Chile before researching the earthquakes happened there, because the geotectonic setting is one of significant determining factors for earthquake. In one hand, the geologic setting of Haiti is constituted by five mountain ranges, and the major component of these mountains is limestone. Except that, Haiti is divided into three regions: south area including south peninsula, the centre area, and north area including north peninsula. The country has abundant karstic features like limestone cave, grottoes, and subterranean rivers (Hadden&Minson, 2008, p 3). Otherwise,the earthquake periodicity od Haiti was happened by the long fault trace pass through southern peninsular and Port-au-Prince (Hadden, R.L. & Minson,S.G., 2010, p 6). Therefore, the geologic setting of Haiti determines the high-risk of earthquake hazard of Haiti. Same as Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) said that “the Greater Antilles in general, and Haiti in particular, is an active seismic region. The relative seismic quiescence in Haiti over the last century allowed this inexorable hazard to slip from memory” (2010, p 10). In another hand, the region of Chile was called “Ring of Fire” which as subduction zone with seacoast of Pacific Ocean, and the mutual effect of the Nazca, Antarctiz, Scotic and South American plates is the main reason of Chile shakes(Mora-Stock & Rabbel, 2012, p 2). According to the Figure 1, the region covered by the color of red and dark brown has high level of seismic hazard. Consequently, most of Chile territory has high-risk of seismic hazard especially in the region of coastline of South Pacific Ocean in west Chile which is the Nazca ridge, Juan Femandez ridge and Nazca plate.
(Figure 1 source from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Chile Seismic Hazard Map. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/chile/gshap.php )
Except that, the historical earthquakes of those two countries could also improve they are high-risk region...