Age: 60 years old at passing (7-30 years old during migrations).
Family Status: Migrated with Father, Mother, Older Sister, Two Brothers until age 14 where she migrated alone.
Social Class: Upper Middle Class (Before WWII + Literacy) and Slave Class (indentured worker)
The Migrant, unlike global trends, was a young female and at first migrated not as an individual seeking work, but with her family as refugees (Fear of American Attack on Home Island, WWII). Later however, several years after the war, the migrant immigrated for work as in indentured worker.
Map #1: (Not to Scale)
Map #2: Migrations within Japan
Type of Migration:
Most of Hayako’s migration was interregional in the country of Japan, meaning moves within different regions of the same country. The migrant never left Japan, but only emigrated from different regions of Japan. An example of her interregional migration is her emigration from the Ryuku Islands where she was born, to Nagasaki on the coast of the mainland.
1) East China Sea - Each of Hayako’s Migrations were across this environmental feature.
Push/Pull Factors: (Combined)
Push: War, Not Enough Jobs, Personal Family Issues, Few Opportunities
Pull: Family Links, Work, Better living conditions, Better medical care
Japanese-American conflict during WWII was a push factor when moving to Nagasaki in 1945 as the migrant and her family feared that Amami Oshima (home island) would suffer greatly should the Americans invade Japan. The atomic bombing of Nagasaki in August of 1945 was also a push factor.
Problems Faced in New Locations:
Moving within the territory controlled by Japan was difficult for the migrant, as there are many countries with many languages and all different customs and dress. Each of the islands in the Ryuku chain have their own customs and language, therefore anyone immigrating to these areas would immediately be seen as different and foreign. It was a massive hurdle to overcome for Hayako whenever she moved to a different country in Japan. Also, when Hayako emigrated to Yaeyama at the age of 14 as an indentured worker, she was put in the slave class. The people of Yaeyama would look down on her and ridicule her, as she didn’t speak the Yaeyama language. Laws addressing someone that was an indentured worker were more restrictive than for the common person, such as not being allowed to leave the premises. Of course, later moving to Minnesota in 1958 also proved difficult, as obviously culture, climate,...