Hospital acquired infections are one of the most common complications of care in the hospital setting. Hospital acquired infections are infections that patients acquired during the stay in the hospital. These infections can cause an increase number of days the patients stay in the hospital. Hospital acquired infections makes the patients worse or even causes death. “In the USA alone, hospital acquired infections cause about 1.7 million infections and 99,000 deaths per year”(secondary).
Hospital acquired infections are spread by numerous routes including contact, intravenous routes, air, water, oral routes, and through surgery. The most common types of infections in hospitals include urinary tract infections (32%), surgical site infections (22%), pneumonia (15%), and bloodstream infections (14%). ( book). The most common microorganisms associated with the types of infections are Esherichila coli, Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus auerus, Coagulase-negative staphylococci, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.(secondary) Urinary tract infections occur when one or more of microorganisms enter the urinary system and affect the bladder and/or the kidneys. These infections are often associated improper catheterization technique. Surgical site infections occur after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. These infections may involve the top of the skin, the tissue under the skin, organs, or blood vessels. Surgical site infections sometimes take days or months after surgery to develop. The infections can be cause by improper hand washing, dressing change technique, or improper surgery procedure. Pneumonia can also become a hospital acquired infection. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a type of lung infection that occurs in a person who has been on a ventilator. Microorganisms can enter the ventilator by the open hole in the patient’s throat or by unsterile suctioning. After microorganisms enter the patient’s body they can go to the lungs and cause pneumonia. Central line-bloodstream infections occur when microorganism enter the bloodstream by the intravenous line. Microorganisms are transfer into the blood stream by inadequate hand hygiene or improper intravenous fluid, tubing, and site care practice. Multidrug-resistant organisms can cause infections of the blood, skin, or organ systems. These infections can arise due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics, which can result in the microorganisms becoming more resistant to antibiotic therapy. Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus and Clostridium difficile are examples of this kind of infection. Health care employees need to know the different types of hospital acquired infections and how they are spread to be able to effectively prevent them.
The priority nursing diagnosis of hospital acquired infection is risk for any kind of infection. One of the main goals for each patient in the hospital is the patient will remain free of infection as evidence by...