Health is an important factor in everyone’s life. When people talk about health, some are solely focused and concerned on physical aspect of the health. However, health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (Davies & Macdowall, 2006). Therefore, keeping yourself healthy emotionally, physically, and spiritually maintains and improves quality of life. From infants to older adults, maintaining optimal health is a common goal for all of us. As healthcare members, it is our responsibilities to promote optimal health to patients and general public. According to Davies & Macdowall (2006), health promotion is the “process of enabling people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health”. It is imperative for healthcare members to fully explore and understand the theories of health and health promotion to establish effective planning and interventions for patients.
In United States, we have more culturally and ethnically diverse population than any other country. The morbidity and mortality rates, prevalence of risk behaviors, and determinants of health behaviors are all different among various culture and ethnic groups (Glanz & Rimer, 1997). As a result, healthcare members must incorporate possible characteristics such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, age, and geographical location of targeted populations when applying health behavior theories.
Health Belief Model
The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the widely used theories in the healthcare field to facilitate health promotion. The model applies six concepts to the theory, which includes perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cue to action, and self-efficacy. This model was originally established in the 1950s to explain why so many people fail to participate in preventive programs such as screenings for tuberculosis. In result, it was indicated that individual’s belief on their susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to specific conditions have significantly influenced their willingness to seek treatment. By applying HBM to specific health programs, healthcare members will be in better position to implement effective interventions for patients.
The application of HBM is used to develop effective strategies when dealing with noncompliance situations such as Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination for young adults. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States and approximately 50% of sexually active persons become infected with HPV during their lifetime (Daley, et al., 2010). Since 2006, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have approved HPV vaccine (Gardasil) for girls and boys aged 9-26 years. However, there are still many girls and boys who have not been vaccinated and/or not interested in vaccination because of their beliefs and lack of...