Health Issues Paraplegia Essay

1004 words - 4 pages

I've chosen to write my report on paraplegia. Paraplegia is paralys of the legs and lower body, and is caused by damage to the lower spinal cord. Spinal cord injury resulting in Paraplegia or Quadriplegia is most often caused by a severe accident. Statistics show that the majority of Paraplegics and Quadriplegic sustain their injury from road accidents, and these along with diving and other sporting accidents affect many young people for the rest of their lives. Spinal injury, resulting in Paraplegia and Quadriplegia, can also occur if the spinal cord is damaged through a disease, which causes infection, or if there is a tumor on the spine. There are more than 12,00 people living in Australia with a spinal cord injury. In 2001 and 2002, there were 398 spinal cord injuries. 91% of these resulted in neurlogical loss. 60% of the injuries in 2001 and 2002 were from traumatic causes, and of those 46% were caused by motor vehicle accidents, 31% were caused by falls and 12% caused by sport. 60% of injuries were incomplete. The cervical segments had the highest frequency of injury, particularly C4 to C6. Each vertibrae in your spine has a letter/number code to represent it. The cervical (neck area) vertibrae are named from C1 to C7, the thoracc (upper back) vertibrae are named from T1 to T12, the lumbar (middle back) vertibrae are named from L1 to L5 and finally the sacral (lower back) vertibrae, which are named from S1 to S5. The higher the injury in the spine, the worse the result will be, because everything below the injury will have functioning problems.T-1 injuries are the first level with normal hand function. They can perform all functions of a non-injured person, with the exception of standing and walking, although this is also possible for some T-1 patients. As thoracic levels proceed caudally, intercostal and abdominal musculature recovery is present, and there is improved respiratory function and trunk balance as a result. T2-5 patients have partial trunk movement and may be able to stand, with long leg braces and a walker, and may be able to walk short distances with assistance. T6-12 patients also have partial abdominal muscle strength, and may be able to walk independently for short distances with long leg braces and a walker or crutches.Most lumbar patients are wheelchair-independent and can ambulate. L2 patients have all movement in the trunk and hips, and L-3 patients have knee extension. They may be able to walk independently with long leg braces and crutches for community distances. L-4 patients have ankle dorsification and L-5 patients have extensor hallucis longus function. They are able to walk independently with ankle braces and canes, and may use wheelchairs for long distances. S-1 and S-2 patients have function of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and walk independently on all surfaces, usually without bracing. After suffering a spinal cord injury, people find various ways to cope with the inability to use...

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