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Health Risks Determined By Epidemiology Essay

1473 words - 6 pages

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in well-defined populations. The goal of epidemiology is to understand the causes of disease variation and limit disease, injury and death in a community by intervening to prevent or limit outbreaks or epidemics of disease and injury. Epidemiology provides the most compelling evidence for measuring environmental risk to humans. Epidemiologists are public health professionals who investigate occurrence of disease-or other health related conditions or events in specific populations. Epidemiology allows public health workers to organize, analyze & interpret statistical facts about health problems. The basic design strategies applied in epidemiological research can be generally categorized according to whether such investigations focus on reporting the distributions of disease or elucidating its determinants. All study designs involve descriptive and analytical type of comparison of exposure and disease status. Descriptive epidemiology focuses on the general characteristics of the distribution of a disease. Analytical epidemiology focuses on the determinants of a disease by testing the hypothesis formulated from descriptive studies to check whether a particular exposure causes or prevents disease.
Lyme disease is the most common systematic, bacterial, tick-borne disease with symptoms that include severe headache, rash, arthritis, fever,joint aches, and cardiac abnormalities. The journal article, “Lyme Disease In Outdoor Workers: Risk Factors, Preventive Measures, And Tick Removal Methods” has written by Brian S. Schwartz and Michael D. Goldstein. The article depicts a statewide cross-sectional case study of risk factors of seropositivity for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in Outdoor workers in New Jersey. The bacterial agent called spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi causes a Lyme disease. The study was designed to evaluate the risk of Lyme disease associated with occupational exposure to ticks, occupational leisure activities, preventive practices and tick removal methods. This research was maintained by New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and fellowship support to Dr. Schwartz by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The study was cross-sectional study motivated by several reports of Lyme disease in outdoor workers in New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection during the summer of 1987. A cross-sectional study surveys the members about current diseases and exposures at one specific point in time. A cross-sectional study is not useful for establishing cause and effect. The study was based on analytical epidemiology. In analytic study designs the comparison is clear, since the researcher assembles groups of individuals exposed or not exposed to a factor of interest. There are two broad design strategies of specific analytical epidemiology: observational and intervention. This case study was observational study. In observational studies, the...

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