Health System Essay

2829 words - 12 pages

Infant mortality rate (IMR) and life expectancy (LE) can be used as a predictor of health to measure a country's general health condition. Some research shows lower health care expenditures and the expansion of the insurance industry relate to the significant increase in infant mortality rate and the reduction in life expectancy(Chattopadhyay, Rakesh, Land, & Acharya, 2011; Cremieux, Ouellette, & Pilon, 1999; Lichtenberg , 2002; Wang, Chen, Hsu, & Wang, 2012). Infant mortality rate is an important indicator of the health and socio-economic level of the residents of a state and national development, and in particular, maternal and child health is an important indicator of the level of health ...view middle of the document...

3 thousand points. However, the infant mortality rate has been declining to 3.7 ‰ in 2012 in Taiwan. In Australia, the infant mortality rate dropped to 4.3 ‰ from 4.7 ‰ in the 2006-2009 periods, but it is higher than the median OECD member states 0.6 thousand points. The IMR of Australia has dropped to 3.6 ‰ in 2011. In 2009, infant mortality rates in both countries are above the OECD standard value (3.7 ‰) (Table four) (Department of Health, ROC [Taiwan], 2013; OECD, 2013; Rachel & Chiang, 2011). The infant mortality rate can affect the formulation of national health policies. It also can affect the entire population, because it is closely related to many factors, such as social welfare, disease incidence, the general living conditions, and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to strongly improve and reduce its incidence.
The average life expectancy (LE) shows the average number of years a new-born population is expected to survive and is an important measure of population health status. Life expectancy is the average period that a person may expect to live. It is usually expressed as the number of years of life expectancy of people born today lives. WHO (2014) define life expectancy as “the average number of years a person can expect to live, if in the future they experience the current age-specific mortality rates in the population.” It is affected by such factors as heredity, physical condition, life style, morbidity rate, education, nutrition, infectious disease, occupation, economic, and environment (Kondro, 2010; Mariani, Pérez-Barahona, & Raffin, 2010; Zhao, Wright, Begg, & Guthridge, 2010). Wherein, Zhao, Wright, Begg, & Guthridge (2010) that mention the positive role of economic globalization on life is very powerful. Globalization may change a country's health care, diet, pharmaceutical technology, public health measures and nationals’ income distribution (Arribas, Pe´rez, & Tortosa-Ausina, 2009; Dreher, 2006; Lichtenberg, 2003). The average life expectancy of the population is a measure of a society's level of economic development and the level of health services indicators. (Mariani, Pérez-Barahona, & Raffin, 2010; Woods, Davis, Duncan, Myers, & O'Shea, 2014)
In 2010, the average life expectancy of women in Taiwan was 82.5 years; males were 76.1 years old. If compared with the median OECD member country, men and women 1.8 years and 0.3 years old were less. Furthermore, the average male life expectancy in Australia is 79.7 years old, while the female is 84.2 years old (Table five) (Ministry of the Interior Department, R.O.C. [Taiwan], 2013; OECD, 2013). These statistics show that the average life expectancy of people in both countries is almost similar to the average standard value. This shows that Taiwan's medical standards and Australia standards are comparable.
In recent years, Taiwan's healthcare system has seen the emergence of various issues arising out of the following phenomena. The phenomenon include a serious...

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