This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Heatwaves, With Particular Reference To Australia (Includes Bibliography)

2313 words - 9 pages

Whilst most people associate natural hazards with more visually dramatic events, such as a roaring bushfire or the sensationalism of a cyclone, there is a much more deadly silent hazard which is devastating to living and unliving.Introduction:Heatwaves pose a significant risk to the human and non human environment, yet largely go unnoticed due to the heatwaves ambiguous nature. Significant numbers of deaths have been the direct of heatwaves, but rarely attracting much attention.Due to the indistinct nature of heatwaves, and the variations in definitions, heatwaves are a difficult hazard to manage. Also, there is little information gathered on specific details of heat wave effects, such as cost to the individual, as it is typically gathered on a large scale. For example, the total annual losses to agriculture as a result of extreme temperature rises may not necessarily be directly caused by a heatwave but another factor. Some losses may also go unaccounted for, such as heart failure, aggravated by the temperature. Discrepancies in recording the effects of heatwave make it increasingly difficult for geographers and officials to identify and manage the heat waves.Outline of hazardA heatwave is a significant rise in temperature which can last over days or weeks. There are difficulties in defining the specific conditions of a heatwave, as the meaning of "excessive heat" can be widely disputed.An article from the United Kingdom's, BBC News, highlights the variations in the definition of heatwaves according to country:"Statistics released on Friday show there were 2,045 more deaths than usual from 4 to 13 August, during which temperatures were above 30C."This comment in contrast to the temperatures experienced in an Australian summer, highlight regional difficulties associated with heatwaves and their management.Heatwaves are often hard to detect and monitor, as deaths are not necessarily obvious (such as drowning by flood), but are often associated with poor management, such as dehydration. The previously mentioned article also referenced experiences in France, where over 15, 000 deaths occurred in a period of a month. It also noted that the majority of those affected were elderly, thus highlighting further cause for consideration in any management strategy.The Bureau of Meteorology suggests the two most commonly used indices for heatwaves are the Relative Strain Index (RSI), formulated by Belding and Hatch (1955) and the research of Steadman (1984) . These indices help in determining suitable management strategies as the hazard is more clearly defined.Management strategiesHazard management strategies range from the immediate human management, to larger scale land care management.Previous studies from the US have determined at which temperatures and humidity levels are the most dangerous to humans. This helps to determine management strategies and at what stage they should be enforced. The graph below from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

Find Another Essay On Heatwaves, with particular reference to Australia (includes bibliography)

With particular reference to the novel opening, how does Jane Austen

1131 words - 5 pages With particular reference to the novel opening, how does Jane Austen present the role of women in pride and prejudice? Pride and Predujice With particular reference to the novel opening, how does Jane Austen present the role of women in pride and prejudice? Pride and prejudice was first published in 1893, this was a time when it just became acceptable for women to write and publish books. Pride and prejudice was set in the early

Critically evaluate assessment, planning and teaching processes with particular reference to children’s learning and development

1576 words - 7 pages teaching until the 1960’s and was evident in didactic teaching, where all learning is knowledge based and is very much led by the teacher. Knowledge and skills to be learnt are chosen by the teacher and direct transmission of knowledge results in children learning. These concepts have led to the coined phrase ‘children are empty vessels to be filled with knowledge’. The common image of a classroom was until the 1960’s that of a teacher at the front

Impact of Banking Sector on Agricultural Development of India with particular reference to Maharashtra – Theoretical perspective

2190 words - 9 pages Impact of Banking Sector on Agricultural Development of India with particular reference to Maharashtra - Theoretical perspective.Vivek V. Patil*1) Introduction :-Agriculture probably is the oldest profession for livelihood for major portion of the population in our country. Nature and type of farming , however, underwent conspicuous changes during the course of socio-economic transformation which has now attended technologically advanced

Critically evaluate assessment, planning and teaching processes with particular reference to children’s learning and development

981 words - 4 pages as a “range of tasks that are too difficult for an individual to master alone, but can be mastered with the assistance or guidance of adults or more-skilled peers.” This can be applied to a classroom environment where students can be grouped such that the students who understand the content of the work with the students who do not (mixed ability groupings). For example, in a science lesson I have taught, I organised the children into mixed ability

Analysis of the Psycho-Thriller genre with particular reference to Basic Instinct, Fatal Attraction and Single White Female

2048 words - 8 pages An analysis of The Psycho - Thriller Genre with particular reference to Basic Instinct (1992), Fatal Attraction (1987) and Single White Female (1992).Genre goes back to the earliest forms of cinema and was seen as a way of organising films according to type. It wasn't until the 1960's that Genre was introduced into the use of main stream theory. The French critic André Bazin was actually already using the term in the 1950's when making

An investigation into the impact IT has had on the modern world with particular reference to business and social problems

3375 words - 14 pages impulse.Sending out questionnaires to loyalty card holders or Internet customers with a free offer is a common practice. These are normally multiple-choice questionnaires for easy data entry into a database.Advertising special offers on the inter-net to the customers that buy on-line would not be difficult because the supermarket knows exactly what each customer buys. It is therefore easy to target a particular customer. This would not cost very much

Why firms try to collude and discuss the factors that may facilitate and hinder sustained collusion with reference to a particular case

2042 words - 8 pages reached $30, which was a tripling in price in just 12 months.This illustrates the difficulty of using supply quotas to achieve a particular price. With demand being price inelastic but income elastic and with considerable speculative movements in demand, the equilibrium price for a given supply quota can fluctuate wildly.In the OPEC case, the member countries cooperate with each other to make a strong and powerful organization in the oil industry

Discuss the different strategies to manage products and services throughout the product life cycle with particular reference to mature products and deletion decisions

3354 words - 13 pages of product and product is a part of service. They are mutually existed. When customers buy a product, they expected that the services are included in the product.This article will talk about the strategies to manage stages of products and services with particular focus on mature products and deletion decisions.ContentIntroduction stageWhen a new product comes on to the market, there is likely to be a good deal of promotional effort on the part of

Give a brief analysis of current banking regulation within the United Kingdom, with particular reference to the threat of systemic risk

1904 words - 8 pages safety and soundness of the financial system and economic neutrality in the allocation of credit with the ultimate goal to safeguard confidence in the banking system" . As an upshot of the secondary banking crisis in the early 1970's the 1979 Banking Act was introduced . This set out the first regulatory requirements which banks had to adhere to . The collapse of Bearings and the Bank for Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) prompted further

Indexation with reference to Brazil

4153 words - 17 pages IndexationWith reference to BrazilPaolo Rigutto6F5th of March 2002Economics HigherPaolo RiguttoDiscussion PaperTHE EFFECT OF INDEXATIONBrazil is known all over the world as a third world country that has a very large population where the greater part of the people live in a poor state of live and have no fixed income. Brazil became very famous for its inflation rates. Inflation is the persistent general rise in prices over a certain amount of

Frederick Taylor's Scientific Management reflects an approach to managing that is no longer appropriate for today’s managers. Critically evaluate this statement, with particular reference to an...

4279 words - 17 pages Frederick Taylor's Scientific Management reflects an approach to managing that is no longer appropriate for today's managers. Critically evaluate this statement, with particular reference to an example from a workplace with which you are familiar INTRODUCTIONManagement is defined as "the process of achieving organizational objectives, within a changing environment, by balancing efficiency, effectiveness and equity, obtaining the most from

Similar Essays

'land Degredation Is An Insidious Disease And Is Threatening To Kill Australia' Includes Website Bibliography

950 words - 4 pages the important agricultural regions of Australia are up to 50 times the natural rate.One major problem that has occurred over the years is the development of a blue green algae that formed 1,000km from Mungindi to Wilcannia. This algal bloom was the largest ever recorded on any river in the world. Also, 2 years ago, a popular dam near Brisbane was closed of to the public due to a blue green algal toxin. The Chaffey Dam in northwestern N.S.W has

Title Explore How The Audiences Perception Of Claudius Alters Throughout The Play, With Particular Reference To The Prayer Scene. Needs More Textual Evidence. Word Count 2062. Includes Bibliography

2096 words - 8 pages . The way in which Claudius behaves in this scene, compared to more private scenes later, can be used to create a theory of a public and private side to Claudius. His words show deep political intelligence and reveal his most important personality traits in the play, his seeming obsession with espionage and spying on Hamlet, his manipulation and handling of certain characters, and his feelings for his Queen.As the scene develops, Claudius turns to

Aboriginal Deaths In Custody History Of Colonization In Australia, Australian Society, Statistics, Western Society. Includes Extensive Bibliography A Mark

2635 words - 11 pages ) suggest that this oppression be caused by police actions towards Aboriginal people.The Aboriginal people within Australia are treated unfairly within society and are taken into custody for minor offences, compared to the other general population of Australia. Horin (1997, as cited in McDonald 2000) discusses the fact that certain groups within Australia are being picked on by the police and are being charged with extremely minor offences. This is

Coevolution With Particular Reference To Herbivory

2185 words - 9 pages COEVOLUTION WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO HERBIVORY Of all the extant organisms in the world, it is believed that terrestrial plants and their natural ‘enemies’ constitute more than forty percent. Moreover, plants exhibit a remarkable diversity of supposedly defensive characteristics including trichomes, spines, silica, secondary chemical compounds, temporal avoidance of enemies, and structures along with chemicals that attract predators of