This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

He La Research & Synthesis Essay

1444 words - 6 pages

Imagine going to the doctor to get checked because you feel sick and they tell you that you need treatment. You think that the doctors are doing is giving you treatment for your sickness, you wake up the next day and you find out that the doctors took a part out of your body without your permission. Would you consider these actions right or would you consider it unethical for doctors to do this without you knowing. Is it ethical to enroll subjects in research when they are not capable of giving free and fully informed consent?. In this essay I will be talking about what informed consent is, and why it is so important in medical research. I will explain the rights it provides to the ...view middle of the document...

Patients must be at least 18 years of age, and must not be considered legally incompetent. A patient that is legally considered incompetent is someone who has a mental illness disability, and can not make a decision on his own. According to Adam's article titled "Informed Consent-Adults", informed consent is not required in an emergency when delayed treatment would be dangerous for the patients. It is unethical to enroll subjects in research who are not capable of giving free, and fully informed consent,such as children, people with significant cognitive impairments or institutionalized populations. According to Kass, children who are minors, and adults who are not competent to legally give informed consent must be handled differently if they are to be recruited for a research project or study. "Informed consent from minors and incompetent adults must be obtained from a person who is legally authorized to give consent on behalf of the individual." This was said by Kass, in his article. A study that violated informed consent happened in Guatemala. According to Amy Gutmann's article titled "Informed Consent: STD research in Guatemala 1946-1948.", The U.S Public Health Services, studies were conducted in Guatemala, involving the intentional exposure of vulnerable populations to sexually transmitted diseases without their consent." The Health services violated informed consent because the subjects were not informed of what was going to happen to them and the risks of the studies. According to Gannon's article "Study Violated Informed Consent", "Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) concluded that a multi-center study violated federal informed consent. The studies manipulated oxygen levels for 1,300 "low birth weight infants". The study violated informed consent because the parents of the infants were not informed about the risks of the study. Informed consent is an important ethic that was first brought about in the Nuremberg Code.
The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles to inform, and protect the patient involved in research studies and treatment. According to Evelyne Shuster's article "Fifty Years Later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code.", the Nuremberg Code was created about 50 years ago, on august 1947, in Nuremberg, Germany. The code was created by American judges sitting in judgement of Nazi doctors accused of conducting murderous and tortures human experiments. Shuster also said, "The code served as a blueprint for today's principles that ensure the rights of subjects in medical Research. Andrew Ivy, and Leo Alexander created the Nuremberg Code. The code was made to merge the Hippocratic ethics, and the protection of human rights into a single code." Another reason for the Nuremberg Code is to protect patients involved in research studies, and any other study. "The Nuremberg code has not been officially adopted in its entirety as a law by any nation or as ethics by any major medical association."(Shuster). What Shuster means...

Find Another Essay On HeLa Research & Synthesis Essay

The 5 Paragraph Essay Format

695 words - 3 pages argument.B. Tells the reader what you think is important to remember. (Often, this is a personal response).C. Never introduces new information in the conclusion. Extend your thinking on something from the essay.The 5 Paragraph Essay FormatThe first paragraph:1) Begins with a topic sentence that introduces a general theme.2) Follows the topic sentence with sentences that narrow the focus of the theme, so that it is less general.3) Introduces the author of

Introduction and Rationale Essay

1870 words - 7 pages Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 675-697. Plakans, L. (2008). Comparing composing processes in writing-only and reading-to-writing test tasks. Assessing Writing, 13, 111-129. Plakans, L. (2009). Discourse synthesis in integrated second language writing assessment. Language Testing, 26 (4), 561-587. Plomp, T. (2009). Educational design research: An introduction. In T. Plomp and N. Nieveen (eds.), An introduction to educational design research

Natural Language Generation

2139 words - 9 pages output regularly in speech synthesis, a new breed of natural language applications will begin! Natural language generation is a young and exciting subject. There is still much research to be done to find the best way of representing a grammar, and providing a program capable of remembering previous statements, interpreting user input, speaking in sentences and sentence fragments, and providing a "natural" conversation. Even newer is the possibility of adding "emotional flavor" to synthesized speech. The windows that are opened by these studies present such a vast landscape of new applications that it is impossible to imagine them all.

Applications of Trigonometry in Music

1294 words - 5 pages . Likewise, the purpose of this essay is to further explore and research the real world applications of trigonometry in music. Music is a subject that intrigues me because it is like a whole other language on its own. It is very unique with its notation system and different styles, just like in literature. Thus, I wanted to learn more about its background so it can help me to better understand its concepts, like how the human ear receives music

Popular Theories of the Origns of Life on Earth

1001 words - 5 pages Life began in the Ocean The Big Bang theory is currently the most prevailing theory that explains the formation of Earth roughly 13 billion years ago. Substantial scientific research and theories are in agreement that when Earth was born, conditions on Earth was harsh. Due to nuclear fusion, Earth was very hot. One theory suggest that the heat of Earth evaporates the water which forms clouds and subsequently leads to rain. As Earth cooled

Acquired Immune Difficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

649 words - 3 pages synthesis of viral DNA. While RNAviruses are not that uncommon, very few RNA viruses reproduce by setting up the flowof information from RNA to DNA. Such reverse or 'retro' flow of information does notoccur at all in any DNA virus or any other living things. Hence, the virus was said tobelong to the rare group of virues called 'Retro Viruses'. Research provided the means totest donated blood for the presence of the antibodies to the virus

Dermatology

990 words - 4 pages This essay will start by covering several facts about the functions, layers, skin appendages, and cells found in the human skin. Then it will discuss how the skin is altered in the diseased state and several different signs that give indication of the skin being in the diseased state. Next the essay will cover symptoms associated with acne vulgaris. Lastly it will go over treatments for acne vulgaris which include diet and/or medicines. The

“Reflecting Back on English 1102”

737 words - 3 pages In English 1102, I was exposed to a variety of different genres, including, argumentative research paper, an annotated bibliography, an analytical paper, and a workplace specific piece. Entering this class the majority of papers I had written were all analytical, and in this class we went above and beyond the basic 5 paragraph essay. Though each paper had a different genre and style, I learned that each project was similar in composition

autonomous vehicles and their effect on the future and how they are currently used around the world - essay

1718 words - 7 pages production. If this technology gets developed correctly and swiftly, it could change the world as we know it. In some parts of the world, such as Europe, this technology is already being utilized. Comment by Leandra Hernandez: Good introduction! Concisely written. Rocha, Cunha, Varandas, and Dias (year of publication), affiliates of the University of Coimbra and Pedro Nunes Institute in Portugal, focused a vast majority of their research on

Yale Application

1512 words - 7 pages MEMS special project courses especially appeal to me, because they will give me a solid base in materials science while allowing me the freedom to pursue my interest in nanostructures. At NJ Governor's School of Engineering and Technology, I had the opportunity to do research in solution synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods. During my literature review, I was fascinated by Professor Taylor's work with carbon nanotube/polymer composite thin films

John Dalton Biography

1454 words - 6 pages at New College, he had no experience in chemical research. He embarked on this study with the same intuitiveness, independence of mind, dedication, and genius for creative synthesis of a theory from the available facts that he had demonstrated in his other work. His early studies on gases led to development of the law of partial pressures (known as Dalton's law; q.v.), which states that the total pressure of a mixture of

Similar Essays

Electrophoresis Essay

2576 words - 11 pages effective in increasing a protein’s electrophoretic mobility, with hopes to produce data that will further the advancement of electrophoresis. The research gathered from this experimentation will be able to bring into focus the fallacies of using certain variables to increase protein migration and determine which variable is more effective in regards to the type of electrophoresis it is being applied towards. Instrumentation and Variables The

Self Reflection: Writing Composition Essay

1711 words - 7 pages (author of quote from above) is a psychology professor at Santa Clara. This knowledge came from my own research and by critically thinking, I concluded that Jerry Burger was a trustworthy source. I developed personal responsibility by giving proper credit to sources that I used in my papers and avoiding plagiarism at all cost. In my Cinderella synthesis essay, called “Ashputtle and the Rough-Faced Girl”, I wrote, “The little white bird that gives

The Differences Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Organisms

2171 words - 9 pages There are three main divisions of living organisms: Prokaryotes, eukaryotes and archaea. This essay will outline the division between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and explore the reasoning behind such differences with regard to general structure, storage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its replication, metabolic processes, protein synthesis and ribonucleic acid (RNA) processing. The cell is the most basic unit of life, defined

Stragtegies For Reviewing Essays

1003 words - 5 pages This last semester, Fall, has been really beneficial to me. During this semester, I worked in many projects including four essays, grammar exercises, and other group activities. Although in the beginning of the semester I had some problems drafting and mainly revising my essays, now I feel more prepared to deal with all of these. Of all my essays, I worked in matters such as literature narrative, rhetorical analysis, synthesis, and a