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He La Research & Synthesis Essay

1444 words - 6 pages

Imagine going to the doctor to get checked because you feel sick and they tell you that you need treatment. You think that the doctors are doing is giving you treatment for your sickness, you wake up the next day and you find out that the doctors took a part out of your body without your permission. Would you consider these actions right or would you consider it unethical for doctors to do this without you knowing. Is it ethical to enroll subjects in research when they are not capable of giving free and fully informed consent?. In this essay I will be talking about what informed consent is, and why it is so important in medical research. I will explain the rights it provides to the ...view middle of the document...

Patients must be at least 18 years of age, and must not be considered legally incompetent. A patient that is legally considered incompetent is someone who has a mental illness disability, and can not make a decision on his own. According to Adam's article titled "Informed Consent-Adults", informed consent is not required in an emergency when delayed treatment would be dangerous for the patients. It is unethical to enroll subjects in research who are not capable of giving free, and fully informed consent,such as children, people with significant cognitive impairments or institutionalized populations. According to Kass, children who are minors, and adults who are not competent to legally give informed consent must be handled differently if they are to be recruited for a research project or study. "Informed consent from minors and incompetent adults must be obtained from a person who is legally authorized to give consent on behalf of the individual." This was said by Kass, in his article. A study that violated informed consent happened in Guatemala. According to Amy Gutmann's article titled "Informed Consent: STD research in Guatemala 1946-1948.", The U.S Public Health Services, studies were conducted in Guatemala, involving the intentional exposure of vulnerable populations to sexually transmitted diseases without their consent." The Health services violated informed consent because the subjects were not informed of what was going to happen to them and the risks of the studies. According to Gannon's article "Study Violated Informed Consent", "Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) concluded that a multi-center study violated federal informed consent. The studies manipulated oxygen levels for 1,300 "low birth weight infants". The study violated informed consent because the parents of the infants were not informed about the risks of the study. Informed consent is an important ethic that was first brought about in the Nuremberg Code.
The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles to inform, and protect the patient involved in research studies and treatment. According to Evelyne Shuster's article "Fifty Years Later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code.", the Nuremberg Code was created about 50 years ago, on august 1947, in Nuremberg, Germany. The code was created by American judges sitting in judgement of Nazi doctors accused of conducting murderous and tortures human experiments. Shuster also said, "The code served as a blueprint for today's principles that ensure the rights of subjects in medical Research. Andrew Ivy, and Leo Alexander created the Nuremberg Code. The code was made to merge the Hippocratic ethics, and the protection of human rights into a single code." Another reason for the Nuremberg Code is to protect patients involved in research studies, and any other study. "The Nuremberg code has not been officially adopted in its entirety as a law by any nation or as ethics by any major medical association."(Shuster). What Shuster means...

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