Helminths: Parasitic Metazoans, And Prevention Essay

1527 words - 6 pages

INTRODUCTION
Helminths (helmins: worms) are group of parasitic metazoans. Soil transmitted helminths infections or helminthiasis (STH) are caused by these group of parasitic worms namely; roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). They are also called intestinal worms because the adult worms live in the intestine. STH is now the most common parasitic infection of humans worldwide, surpassing even the most common talked about parasitic infection, malaria. “Approximately two billion people are infected and four billion of the world populations are at risk of being infected, as of latest estimate, with highest number of cases occurring in tropical and sub-tropical countries; Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and China” (source, www.wikipedia.org). STH are usually transmitted by ingestion of eggs which are present in the soil which was contaminated by human feces. Food items such as vegetables and fruits are also contaminated especially in areas where fecal matter is used as manure or fertilizer, the eggs also contaminate the water supply, this happens in areas where there is poor sanitation and poor communities where the people do not have resources to build a toilet or latrine. Transmission can also be through penetration of the skin by the larvae of hookworms or accidental ingestion of the larvae of Ancylostoma duodenale. STH are common among children who play with contaminated sand and put the hand in their mouth or use the same hands to eat without washing them or pick up contaminated food items from the ground. STH is said to be one of the most important cause of intellectual and physical retardation in children, they cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, malnutrition and can be life threatening; the more the number of worms the more severe the disease condition. Effective control measures include; good personal hygiene and sanitation, health education, periodic administration of anthelminth drugs especially for pre-school and school age children as they are the population at highest risk of being infected.

GLOBAL HEALTH PROBLEMS POSED BY HELMINTHS INFECTIONS
According to the World Health Organization, estimates taken worldwide show that approximately;
• 807-1121 million people are affected by Ascaris lumbricoides
• 576-740 million are affected by hookworms
• 604-794 million are affected by whip worm
• 880 million children need treatments from any one of these infections and that 135,000 die per year from these infections (cause of death is usually due to the high amount of worms in the individual because the more the worms, the more the severity of the infection).
Ascaris is the most widespread STH; children are more commonly affected by Ascaris lumbricoides. Mild infections show little or no symptom, heavy infections can result in physical weakness, severe intestinal block and retard growth in children. Severe ascariasis can also cause pneumonia and...

Find Another Essay On Helminths: Parasitic Metazoans, and Prevention

Malaria Essay

1024 words - 4 pages .” Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present, Rev. Ed. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2001. This article was an updated history of African malaria outbreaks and the specific causes of and reactions to these epidemics. “Malaria.” CDC Division of Parasitic Diseases Information. 3 Mar. 2002. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 5 Oct. 2002 <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/ parasites/malaria/default.htm

It's an essay on Elephantiasis

396 words - 2 pages I did my report on filariasis, which is more commonly known as elephantiasis. Elephantiasis is the late phase of filariasis. Filariasis is a tropical mosquito born parasitic disease causing obstruction of the lymph vessels. In some people the presence of the worm causes a tissue reaction that causes the lymph flow to be blocked. This blockage produces lymphedema which is a swelling and can eventually lead to a tremendous enlargement of an

Understanding Malaria

750 words - 3 pages about malaria. Malaria kills more people than any communicable disease except for tuberculosis. It is caused by four species of parasitic protozoa that infect human red blood cells. Four different types of these protozoa are known: protozoa falciparum, protozoa vivax, protozoa ovale, and protozoa malariae. Protozoa falciparum is the most lethal of the four and accounts for the majority of infections. Malaria parasites are not able to

Disease Organisms

756 words - 3 pages Disease Organisms By Section 1 Part A: i) Disease: A disease is an impairment of normal bodily functions caused by infection or stress. It produces symptoms such as illness or general sickness. Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship between a parasitic organism and its host. The parasite benefits from the relationship but the host is usually harmed. The parasite will derive nutrition from their host and may gain other benefits such as

Preventing Malaria

1759 words - 7 pages Danes have fortunately been rare some years, but in 2008, was a Danish woman infected in the Gambia and died in Denmark untreated. How you prevent malaria? Prevention is about two things: To avoid mosquito bites. To take preventive medicine if you are traveling or living in a malaria area: Avoid mosquito bites: Mosquitoes sticks especially at dusk and at night. Therefore, make sure to have the network for open doors and windows

Occupational Health & Safety: Biological Hazards

1755 words - 7 pages This presentation will include what biological hazards exist in the workplace, legislation for industries involving this issue, and provide examples and prevention for employers in a variety of industries.Firstly though I will take you through what biological hazards are and will go into a little detail of ones that we come into contact with everyday.Biological hazards are living things, or substances produced by living things, that can cause

Analysis of Malaria

1207 words - 5 pages human cells at a very fast rate. It is able to evade immune responses as it produces multiple surface proteins that keep varying in type and signals. Hence a vaccine targeting a specific protein cannot be used. Vaccines for malaria produced so far have all been subunit vaccines as the whole parasitic genome is not used and hence not enough of an immune response is produced to completely kill the parasite.(1) The centre for disease control and

Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogenesis, Assessment Findings, and Treatments

1515 words - 6 pages fast acting infection that wastes no time getting to the subarachnoid space of the meningeal layer around the brain and causing inflammation and tissue damage. It is important for people to know about the treatment options and the prevention options for not only bacterial meningitis, but also fungal, viral, parasitic, and toxic meningitis. It is nearly impossible to not respect and understand how powerful these bacterial agents are that cause

Animal Research: A Life-Saving Technique

864 words - 3 pages research.Many advances in medical science have come from animal research. These include: vaccine that prevent measles, mumps, polio, and hepatitis; prevention of cancer; antibiotics; organ transplants; heart surgery and much more. Just think now for a moment. If animal research hadn't existed, where would humans be? When a person takes insulin for diabetes, gets blood transfusion for a life-saving operation, or takes medication to alleviate allergies, he or

What Is Rickettsia

857 words - 3 pages What Is Rickettsia?Rickettsia are bacteria, which are obligate intracellular parasites many disease-causing, that live in vertebrates and are transmitted by bloodsucking parasitic arthropods such as fleas , lice and ticks. Rickettsias are named after their discoverer, the American pathologist Harold Taylor Ricketts, who died of typhus in Mexico after confirming the infectious agent of that rickettsial disease.Rickettsias unlike other bacteria

How Do Germs Spread and Cause Illness

1628 words - 7 pages kingdom of living things (as mold, rusts, mildews, yeasts, and mushrooms) that lack chlorophyll, are parasitic or live on dead or decaying organic matter, and were formerly considered plants. Fungus primarily uses simple sugars as their food source. There are estimated to be 72,000 known species of fungi. Humans can be infected with fungus. Common fungus infections in humans are seen in athlete’s foot, ringworms, yeast infections, jock itch, and nail

Similar Essays

The Pros And Cons Of The Great Migration

1967 words - 8 pages , New York, its population mainly increased after the 1920’s. From 1920 to 1930, it is said to be because of poor crops in the South. There were plenty of bad droughts and floods, and plus, the boll weevil cotton infestation occurred. This agriculturalinfestation /in·fes·ta·tion/ (-fes-ta´shun) parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin and/or its appendages, as by insects, mites, or ticks; sometimes used to denote parasitic invasion of the

Factors Of Parasitic Virulence Essay

1709 words - 7 pages Factors of Parasitic VirulenceABSTRACTWhy do some parasites kill the host they depend upon whileothers coexist with their host? Two prime factors determine parasiticvirulence: the manner in which the parasite is transmitted, and theevolutionary history of the parasite and its host. Parasites whichhave colonized a new host species tend to be more virulent thanparasites which have coevolved with their hosts. Parasites which aretransmitted

Flavanoids Essay

545 words - 2 pages CHAPTER ONE1.1 INTRODUCTIONThe consumption of food products containing high amounts of flavonoids has been reported to lower the risk of various cancers.With the rapid advances in biomedical research, there has been a growing interest in screening natural products for their potential use in disease prevention and treatment. Polyphenols are important compounds of the human diet found in fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, tea and wine (Di Carlo et

Disease Report On Scabies

965 words - 4 pages ; it affects people of all races and social classes. Institutions such as prisons, nursing homes and childcare centers are often sites of scabies outbreaks due to the crowded conditions and close contact with people. Prevention and control is done by avoiding direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person and their personal items such as clothing and bedding. If one person in the household is diagnosed with scabies, then the whole family