Hemtentamen Vetenskapsfilosofi Essay

1312 words - 5 pages

Hemtentamen VetenskapsfilosofiErik ThimanÖstra Grevie Folkhögskola2009-03-12Punkt 1 och 2 = Premisser. Punkt 3 = Slutsats.Induktion: Att härleda slutsatser från erfarenheter. Exempel:Konsument A handlar för 100 SEK.Konsument B handlar för 100 SEK._________________Konsumtionsmönstret kommer gälla även för C, D och E.Utifrån ett antal händelser inducerar man en sannolik slutsats. I exemplet ovan studerar vi ett konsumtionsmönster. Eftersom induktion är byggd på ett antagande eller generalisering innebär detta att slutsatsen inte nödvändigtvis behöver vara sann.Deduktion: Att härleda slutsatser från premisser. Exempel:Nisse jobbar och tjänar på 250 SEK i timmen (brutto).En dag jobbar Nisse 10 timmar._____________Nisses dagslön uppgår till 2500 SEK (brutto).Utifrån ett antal premisser deducerar man en slutsats. Princip; "Om premiss 1 och 2 är sanna så måste även 3 vara sant". Vi får en logiskt giltig slutsats. Om det då skulle visa sig att slutsatsen (3) är osann? Exempel på logisk ogiltig deduktion:Alla börsbolags VD:ar får varje år en lönebonus.Nisse är VD för ett börsbolag. _____________I år får Nisse lönebonus.De filosofiska förfaringssätten jag nu redogjort för har som gemensam utgångspunkt att genom härledning dra vissa slutsatser. En invändning mot dessa modeller är just det faktum att premisserna måste bevisas för att slutsatsen ska vara sann. Denna invändning om att bevisa en slutsats kan kopplas samman till den hypotetisk-deduktiva modellenHypotetisk-deduktiv metodFör att bevisa att huruvida en slutsats är sanningsenlig behövs en vetenskaplig metod som anses beskriva hur empiriska vetenskaper fungerar. Denna modell kallar vi för hypotetisk-deduktiv metod och går ut på att:Att formulera en eller flera hypoteser.Att härleda konsekvenser som logiskt måste följa av hypotesen eller hypoteserna (beteckningen hypotetisk-deduktiv syftar här på deduktiv härledning av konsekvenser ur den givna hypotesen)Att undersöka om dessa konsekvenser stämmer överens med verkligheten.Eller mer enkelt; Härledning genom prövning. Vi vill få vår hypotes verifierad. Detta gör vi genom lämpliga att ställa upp lämpliga testimplikationer. Problemet med verifiering av hypotes är att det kvarstår eller rentav uppkommer nya frågeställningar. En hypotes behöver ju inte vara sann bara för att en eller flera testimplikationer visar sig stämma. Hypotesen kan alltså styrkas men aldrig verifieras. Vår uppgift är nu att istället för att verifiera försöka falsifiera hypotesen. Att testa en hypotes är i...

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