[Title will go here]
Hepatic cancer, also called primary liver cancer, can be broken down into four different types of cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and hepatoblastoma. Although most cancer found in the liver are secondary to other cancers that have metastasized from elsewhere in the body, this paper focuses only on primary hepatic cancer. [add to the introduction here]
Etiology and Pathophysiology of Disease
Hepatocellular carcinoma is unlike many other forms of cancer because the causative agent is often evident (Sanyal, Yoon, & Lencioni, 2010). Some of the principal causes of hepatic cancer are being inflicted with a background in ...view middle of the document...
, 2010, p. 16). This means that the cirrhosis lead to many changes in the body that all lead to an increase risk of developing tumors in the liver.
Chronic infection with either hepatitis B or C viruses is thought to be leading causes in the formation of hepatic cancer. Hepatitis B virus has been revealed as major cause of hepatic cancer by intensifying the risk by a 100-fold in chronic carriers (Sanyal et al., 2010). Hepatitis B virus triggers hepatocyte injury and chronic inflammation, followed by fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatitis C virus is also a leading cause of hepatic cancer because it can lead to chronic inflammation, cell death, proliferation, and cirrhosis (Sanyal et al., 2010). When the hepatitis C virus injects its RNA into the host cell it results in a process that causes the host to produce extra cytokines and subsequently inflammation follows leading to changes in apoptotic pathways and tumor formation (Sanyal et al., 2010).
Prevalence of Disease in the U.S. and Risk Factors
The American Cancer Society estimates that approximately 24,600 men and 8,590 women will be diagnosed with either primary liver cancer or intrahepatic bile cancer in the United States this year (ACS). It is also believed that roughly 15,870 men and 7,130 women will perish from these two cancers in the United States throughout the year (ACS).
Males have an increased risk of developing liver cancer at about one in every eighty-one men, compared to females at approximately one in every 196 females (ACS). It is alleged that males have a higher risk at developing liver cancer because they are more likely to engage in behaviors that influence other risk factors (ACS). Race and Ethnicity is also a risk factor for liver cancer. According to the American Cancer Society (2014), “in the United States, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have the highest rates of liver cancer, followed by American Indians/Alaska Natives and Hispanics/Latinos, African Americans, and whites”. As much as 95% of diagnosed cases of liver cancer are in people forty-five years or older, with an average age of sixty-three years old (ACS).
The most common risk...