This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Hepatitis B Virus Essay

1220 words - 5 pages

Hepatitis B Virus

Characteristics:

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a double-stranded DNA virus in the Hepadnaviridae family. The infectious particle is 42nm in diameter, with a genome 3200 nucleotides long. It has an outer envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid, which contains viral DNA polymerase and has a diameter of 27nm. The envelope contains the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg); this is the molecule to which anti-HBV antibodies are directed. The non-infectious hepatitis B particles are composed of HBsAg only and come in the form of filaments and spheres. Their only likely purpose is binding up antibodies so the infectious particles can remain free. In humans HBV infects hepatocytes where it replicates within the nucleus, but can also be found in smooth muscle, bone marrow, kidneys, thyroid glands and other sites.

Infection:

HBV is usually transmitted from blood to blood and can be contracted via infected needles (IV drugs and tattoos), sexual contact, cuts, hemodialysis, vertical transmission at birth and blood transfusions. In developed countries blood is screened for the presence of HBsAg before transfusion. Unlike other forms of viral hepatitis, HBV cannot be transmitted by contaminated food or water. The CDC states that preventive measures for HBV infection are similar to those for HIV. Diagnosis of HBV can be made by the presence of HBsAg, which can be found in the serum a few weeks before onset of illness. The anti-HBsAg antibody is found weeks to months after infection and can last, in some cases giving life-long immunity.

Hepatitis B is found mostly in Africa, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and parts of the Caribbean. In those areas all socioeconomic groups are affected with rates above 8%. Infection rates between 2% and 7% occur in central and southwest Asia Israel, Japan, parts of Europe, the Amazon River basin and Russia. Most other areas including northern and western Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico and the southern part of South America have low rates of infection (<2%). Chronic HBV carriers can spread the infection. Infection from carriers is low in North America and northern Europe (<0.5%), but is >10% in some areas of the Far East. 5,000 people in the US die from HBV each year and there are currently 1 million chronically infected people in the US. Worldwide 2 billion people have been infected, with 350 million chronically and 1.5 million die each year.

Symptoms:

Symptoms include loss of appetite (anorexia), fever, nausea with vomiting and jaundice. In this case, jaundice is caused when extra subunits of hemoglobin called bilirubin build up in the body due to liver damage. The word hepatitis means inflammation of the liver and with HBV infection the liver is often enlarged and tender. A HBV infection can be acute or chronic. An acute infection can resolve itself spontaneously, with rates as high as 90-95% in adults, but is...

Find Another Essay On Hepatitis B Virus

What Causes Hepatitis A? Essay

702 words - 3 pages Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis B is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B may be acute or chronic. Hepatitis B is considered chronic if the virus remains in the blood longer than six months. (CDC, 2014) Etiology: • Hepatitis A is primarily transmitted through the ingestion of fecal matter, but can also be spread through the transmission of infected

Seropositivity of hepatitis B and C among thalassemic patients in Sulaimani city

1260 words - 6 pages Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The name is from the Greek hêpar (ἧπαρ), the stem of which is hēpat- (ἡπατ-), meaning of the liver, and suffix -itis, meaning "inflammation" [1] hepatitis virus have A, B C and D types. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most prevalent cause of human liver disease [4,5]. hepatitis B varies

Types of Hepatitis

1515 words - 7 pages sanitation, overcrowding, and ingestion of shellfish cultivated in polluted water is associated with a high risk of infection. The virus is resistant to detergent, acid (pH 1), solvents, drying, and temperatures up to 60 °C. Hepatitis B is found is in blood, saliva, vaginal fluid, or semen of an infected person. It is transmitted through unprotected sex, insect bites, and through blood-to-blood contact. Sexual transmission is a less common but still

Hepatitis C

1004 words - 4 pages ). Liver failure from chronic hepatitis C is one of the most common causes of liver transplants in the United States. Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver’s cells and tissues caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C virus is blood-borne, which means it is spread through blood and blood products (Grady). After the discovery of hepatitis A virus in 1973 and hepatitis B in 1963, any cases of acute or chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis

Hepatitis E

1337 words - 5 pages suspect cases of non-A and non-B hepatitis (Balayan et al. 1983) hepatitis E virus is a non-eveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus is approximately 27 to 30 nm in size (veterinami medicina 52, 2007) (HEV) infections are spreads by the faecal – oral route and causes acute sporadic and epidemic viral hepatitis worldwide, usually through contaminated water supply. (Vasickova et al, 2005) However, the actual mechanism

Malaria Disease and Hepatitis C

633 words - 3 pages splenomegaly syndrome also defined as hyperactive malaria syndrome. Hepatitis C (B) Hepatitis C affects people differently. Many people that have hepatitis C virus do not even know it but most common symptoms include fatigue, tiredness, muscle and joint pain, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, bleeding, upset stomach, swelling of ankle, fever, bruising, diarrhea, nausea, itchiness, insomnia, depression, jaundice and pale

Hepatitis C

2406 words - 10 pages transplantation in the United States (Bushie). This virus affects so many people and we should all learn and study more about it to hasten its spread. Hepatitis is a rather new virus to the science world, but it has been around for a very long time. Before scientists knew about hepatitis C, they had discovered A and B types, so when they found C they called it non-A non-B (Turkington 5). The virus was discovered in 1987, but not until after 1990 was

IMPLEMENTATION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINATION AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL OF ALLIED MEDICINE

758 words - 3 pages CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of Study Hepatitis B is a disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidae, including human, and cause an inflammation of the liver called hepatitis. The disease was originally known as "serum hepatitis" that caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a one third of the world's population or more than 2 billion people have been infected

Hepatitis C

592 words - 2 pages injected drugs, being exposed to human blood, received a blood transfusion or blood products before 1992 or overseas (Turkington, 13).The hepatitis C virus affects the liver, as well as other cells such as white blood cells and the lymphatic system. This is thought to make the disease more complicated to treat. People with chronic HCV (hepatitis c virus) may experience a broad array of symptoms. Symptoms may include flu like illness with chills

Hepatitis

548 words - 2 pages Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver cells which is caused by certain types of viruses (A, B, C, D, and E) and it could be acute (lasts for a short period of time) or chronic (lasts for more than 6 months) [2].All types of hepatitis have some common symptoms such as jaundice, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, malaise, and pain and discomfort in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen [1]. If these symptoms persist for a long time they might

Hepatitis

1609 words - 6 pages diagnosis possible. Despite the fact that there is not a vaccine the use of gamma globulin as a preventive measure seems to be effective. Gamma globulin is given as soon as the virus is established. Several other drugs have been used experimentally. They have shown promise against the virus in certain tests, but these drugs are not in general use (Locke 82-83). The other type of hepatitis is serum hepatitis. It is also known as hepatitis B. In

Similar Essays

The Hepatitis B Virus And Vaccination

1670 words - 7 pages The Hepatitis B Virus and Vaccination   The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a long history of being shrouded in mystery concerning its cause and transmission and the treatment of its resulting symptoms and diseases. As more was learned about the virus in the first half of this century, it came to be identified largely with homosexuals and intravenous drug users. Due to its prevalence among such already marginalized members of society, hepatitis

Management Of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

933 words - 4 pages Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a burden to many countries worldwide as it is one of the leading cause of end-stage liver disease and mortality[1-2]. Approximately one-third of the world’s population has had a past HBV infection while 350 to 400 million people are chronically infected with HBV[1-3]. However, the Institute of Medicine Committee states that 65% of these chronically infected HBV patients are not aware of their

Coinfection Of Hiv, Hepatitis C Virus, And Hepatitis B Virus Among Injection Drug Users In Isfahan Drop In Centers

773 words - 4 pages programsreduction programs in mentioned centers but for achieving more favourable results harm reduction programmsprograms should be still expanded. Key words: HIV, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, coinfection, Drop in Center Introduction: Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the three prevalent viral and blood bore infections worldwide (1).They considered as an important public health concerns due to

Hepatitis Essay

585 words - 2 pages HepatitisHepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells or the organ. Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice, anorexia and malaise. Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.There are 5 types of Hepatitis; A, B, C, D, and E. Each caused by a different hepatitis virus. Hepatitis A