Hepatitis C is a chronic liver disease that is caused by an infection from hepatitis C virus (HCV). The hepatitis C virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the Hepacivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family (Lauer and Walker, 2001). Nearly 170 million people are chronically infected by this virus, which represents approximately 3% of the world population (Mohd Hanafiah et al., 2013). Chronic hepatitis C can lead to other serious liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis (Zazrin et al., 2013). For this reason, hepatitis C is regarded as one of the major global health problems. Hepatitis C is an asymptomatic disease in which shows no signs or symptoms and the infected patients usually are unaware about the disease. To date, there is no rapid and effective vaccination or treatment with zero side effects to cure hepatitis C.
There are a few approved treatments available to reduce the effect of hepatitis C on liver; however, the efficiencies are not guaranteed 100%. Therefore, I will further discuss the efficiency of the approved treatments for hepatitis C in this bibliography and my final literature review. I will also emphasize on the different type of treatments available to lower down the risks of liver damage caused by hepatitis C.
This article provides the information about a linear peptidomimetic HCV serine protease inhibitor called as telaprevir in phase III trials. During phase II trials conducted beforehand, the combination of telaprevir with peginterferon-ribavirin was more efficient when compared to peginterferon-ribavirin alone, which suggested that the duration of telaprevir with peginterferon-ribavirin treatment can be shortened in most patients. 1088 untreated HCV genotype 1 patients were involved in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, which was conducted internationally. These patients were divided into three treatment groups: combination of telaprevir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks (T12PR group), combination of telaprevir with peginterferon-ribavirin for 8 weeks and placebo with peginterferon-ribavirin for 4 weeks (T8PR group), and combination of placebo with peginterferon-ribavirin for 12 weeks (PR group). After 24 weeks of treatment, a significantly higher number of patients from T12PR (75%) or T8PR (69%) groups had achieved sustained virological response (P<0.001) as compared to patients from PR group (44%). 58% of the total telaprevir-treated patients were able to receive the full 24 weeks of treatment. Side effects such as anaemia, rash and gastrointestinal disorders occurred at higher rates in patients receiving telaprevir-containing regimens, as compared with peginterferon-ribavirin alone. Therefore, 24 weeks of therapy with telaprevir and peginterferon-ribavirin resulted in a significant increase in sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of untreated HCV genotype 1 patients, in comparison with peginterferon-ribavirin treatment alone.
This article is useful...