Genetic Diversity In Agriculture Essay

713 words - 3 pages

none great essayGENETIC DIVERSITY IN AGRICULTUREGenetic variation is the raw material for the plant breeder, who must often select from primitive and wild plants, including wild species, in search of new genes. The appearance of new diseases, new pests, or new virulent forms of disease causing organisms makes it imperative that the plant be preserved, because it offers a potential for the presence of disease resistant genes not present in cultivated varieties. Also, there are demands for new characters--for example, high protein, improved nutritional factors, and fertility restoration. As a result, plant breeders require a large and diverse gene pool to meet ever changing needs.A gene bank is a popular term that is used to describe repositories for genes of living organisms. It is commonly used in the context of plant breeding as I described above, but it also applies to the freezing and the storage of animal sperm and embryos for use in animal husbandry or artificial insemination.An understanding of crop origins and variations is necessary in assembling genetic diversity in plant crops. In certain geographical areas there has existed a rich source of variability in crop plants but the encroachment of civilization has reduced the natural variability inherent in primitive plant forms and related species of crop plants. Agricultural process, as a result of new breeding programs, has reduced rather than increased crop variability as improved cultivars, or varieties, are planted in wider and wider areas and old cultivars, which may contain valuable genes, are lost. Crop failures, which result in a smaller gene pool, have led to an increased awareness of the need to preserve genetic diversity in plants. Efforts are under way to increase collections of plant materials in various forms. Usually these are preserved as seeds, but living plants, pollen, and cell cultures are also used. In most gene banks, seeds are usually preserved under conditions of low temperature and humidity. These collections must be periodically renewed by growing the plants and producing new seeds. Increasing emphasis is also being placed on preserving living collections of asexually propagated crops such as species of fruits and nuts.In the united states, germ plasm banks are handled in a state-federal cooperative program....

Find Another Essay On Genetic diversity in agriculture

Assessment of genetic diversity in some safflower genotypes showing variability for salt tolerance

996 words - 4 pages et al. 2012). Genetic diversity refers to variation within and between living objects which is heritable. Assessment of genetic diversity is an essential tool for selection as well as for genetic improvement of plants (Ramanatha and Hodgkin 2002). Previously, studying on genetic diversity bounded by morphological, agronomical and biochemical parameters. In 1990s with the advent of molecular markers, analysis of genetic diversity was done with

Should GM Food be sold? Essay

1435 words - 6 pages and extract the desired gene that wanted to replace. After this they would replace the missing gene with the modified gene, that the scientist wanted, and use bacteria or virus or injections to get the modified DNA to replicate. Genetic engineering have been use in multiple of uses like in agriculture. Scientist had been able to modified agriculture so they could grow bigger or resistant temperature or pesticide and many other ways that benefit the

The Morals and Ethics of Genetic Engineering

3610 words - 14 pages can also be referred to as Genetic Modification or Genetic Manipulation (Genetics). Organisms that undergo or are created by the process of genetic engineering are referred to as Genetically Modified Organisms or GMOs for short. Genetic engineering can be used to create or change entire species, such as glow in the dark organisms, and is widely used in industries such as agriculture and energy production (Genetics). The scientific process of

To what extent has DNA technology helped our understanding of human colonisation and the spread of agriculture in Europe over the past 10 000 years? How is this supported by language evidence?

1741 words - 7 pages & Jacomet) and migration was important to the spread of agricultural into Europe. The transition to agriculture at the beginning of the Neolithic Period is seen as having a major impact on gene distributions in Europe, which can detected today. The genetic gradients across Europe are well established, and have been subjected to extensive statistical testing. Cavalli-Sforza et al have constructed "principal component synthetic maps" ( Evison p617

The Engineering of Human Genetics in Dreams and Nightmares

1519 words - 6 pages level of intelligence and physical ability, creating an even larger inequality and distance between the rich and the poor as the wealthy people become more intelligent while poor people become dumber by comparison. Aside from the potential dangers instigated by new genetic technology come more natural dangers. In present day agriculture, many of our crops are genetically modified. Such modifications are practiced to eliminate vulnerability to

What´s Genetic Diversity?

709 words - 3 pages Discuss the issues related to genetic diversity: mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size Genetic diversity: Genetic diversity ids defined as the diversity or genetic variability within species. Every species possesses genes which are the source of its own unique features. In human beings, for example, each person's genetic individuality is reflected by the huge variety of people's faces. The term genetic diversity also

Droughts of Diversity

876 words - 4 pages will continue to affect the diversity of crop varieties, or how it will affect existing varieties of species. The idea that diversification is enhanced by genetic modification is false, as it does not have the same spontaneity as traditional breeding or evolution. In addition, it comes with additional costs in research and reliance upon unknown technologies. These crops, along with traditional hybrids, have been exported to many other parts of

Agroecology and Miguel Altieri

1100 words - 4 pages massive drops in yield that it became necessary to import rice. These practices, all part of modern agriculture, along with planting the same crop acre after acre with no diversity, dramatically increase the risk of diseases or pests (Altieri 1990). For as many problems there are with genetic uniformity, there are benefits as well. In Thailand, farmers are maximizing profits by using modern rice varieties during the dry season to maximize

Study of Genetics

2492 words - 10 pages , “Kenaf remains on the verge of significant commercialization” and improvements in adaptability and nematode resistance would enhance the crop prospects. Some researches were conducted on adaptability, genetic diversity and cultivar differences of kenaf (Chen et al., 2011; Cheng et al., 2004; Gray et al., 2006; Villar et al., 2001; Webber et al., 2001) and they revealed significant differences among kenaf germplasm. Kenaf breeding activities in

Molecular characterization of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid germplasm based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

1611 words - 7 pages to the populations becoming threatened and endangered in natural habitats (Miyazawa et al. 1997; Yang et al. 2006). In order to design an effective conservation based utilization strategy for this endangered orchid species, therefore it is important to have a clear view about the availability and distribution of all natural genetic variations existing within the genus. Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of an endangered

Negative Effects of Genetic Engineering

942 words - 4 pages disturb the balance of diversity which exists in nature. Almost all GE foods contain antibiotic resistance marker genes that help producers know whether the new genetic material was transferred to the host plant or animal. GE food could make disease-causing bacteria even more resistant to antibiotics, which could increase the spread of disease throughout the world. Genetic engineered food can affect human development. The end product made for

Similar Essays

Genetic Diversity In Agriculture Essay

713 words - 3 pages and the storage of animal sperm and embryos for use in animal husbandry or artificial insemination.An understanding of crop origins and variations is necessary in assembling genetic diversity in plant crops. In certain geographical areas there has existed a rich source of variability in crop plants but the encroachment of civilization has reduced the natural variability inherent in primitive plant forms and related species of crop plants

Genetic Engineering In Agriculture Essay

4138 words - 17 pages Genetic Engineering in Agriculture Among the millions of species that inhabit the planet, only twenty species provide ninety percent of the human food supply (Montgomery 2000). Since the introduction of genetic engineering, however, livestock and crops have a more productive future. Transfer of engineered genes from organism to organism occurs through hybridization, conjugation, and transformation in microorganisms. By the

Cloning And The Decline In Genetic Diversity

1458 words - 6 pages Cloning and the Decline in Genetic Diversity *Missing Works Cited* One of the biggest problems with the use of cloning is the decline in genetic diversity, continued use of cloning would lead to inbreeding, wide scale, conformity. Humans would be taking nature into their own hands. Over the past billion years, life has grown into a fascinating structure. Of the 300,000 kinds of plants and more than a million kinds of animals that are

The Problem Of Low Genetic Diversity In The Siberian Tiger

866 words - 4 pages The problem Inbreeding poses The genetic diversity of Siberian Tiger populations has been declining rapidly due to increased inbreeding between tigers which has occurred as a result of their dwindling numbers. This poses a very real and worrying problem as a low number of different alleles in a species’ gene pool undermine the ability of members of the species to evolve and adapt to changes in their environment. This in turn would put the tigers