Hess's Law Practical Chemistry Hl Lab Report

2551 words - 11 pages

Research Question
What is the enthalpy of reaction of the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)?
Aim
This lab investigation is aimed at calculating the enthalpy of reaction of the thermal decomposition of NaHCO3:
2NaHCO3 (s) Na2CO3 (s) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
through the manipulation and adding of these equations by applying Hess?s Law:
NaHCO3 (s) + HCl (aq) NaCl (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
Na2CO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) 2NaCl (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)
Method

Fig. 1 A labelled diagram showing the experimental setup[footnoteRef:1] [1: Novillos, C., 2016. Chemistry With Chloe. [Online]]

Qualitative Observation
Both NaHCO3 and anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) are initially observed to be very fine, white powder. However, as both were placed into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and started to dissolve, the same changes could be observed.
As soon as the NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 powder touched the surface of the HCl, it was observed to start to bubble up in the form of white and opaque bubbles. The bubbles then started to die down slowly compared to the rate at which it formed and when a similar amount of powder to what was added initially was placed in the solution again, it rose back to its previous height.
Though the reaction of both NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 with HCl was the same, there was one difference that could be observed which was that the reaction between NaHCO3 and HCl was more vigorous than that of the reaction between Na2CO3 and HCl in terms of the amount of bubbles produced; more bubbles and the height it reached; a higher height.
After all the NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 powder was added in and the reaction process was completed, no precipitate was observed at the bottom of the styrofoam cup calorimeter after all the bubbles died out and the solution within it remained a clear liquid.

Quantitative Observation
Raw Data
Table showing the temperature change of 14g NaHCO3 and
8g Na2CO3 reacting with 100mL HCl in 0.5minute intervals

?
NaHCO3 (?C ? 0.5?C)
Na2CO3 (?C ? 0.5?C)

Time (min)
1
2
3
1
2
3

0.5
20.0
21.0
20.0
20.1
21.0
20.0

1.0
20.0
21.0
20.0
20.1
21.0
20.0

1.5
20.0
21.0
20.0
20.1
21.0
20.0

2.0
20.0
21.0
20.0
20.1
21.0
20.0

2.5
20.0
19.0
18.0
21.0
23.2
22.8

3.0
18.5
15.0
15.5
23.5
25.5
24.8

3.5
17.5
12.0
12.0
25.0
27.0
27.0

4.0
15.0
9.0
10.8
26.5
27.0
27.0

4.5
12.0
8.9
9.2
27.0
27.0
27.0

5.0
10.0
8.9
9.2
27.0
27.0
27.0

5.5
10.0
8.9
9.2
27.0
27.0
27.0

6.0
10.0
8.9
9.2
27.0
26.5
27.0

6.5
10.5
9.3
9.2
27.0
26.5
26.8

7.0
10.5
9.5
9.3
27.0
26.5
26.5

7.5
10.8
9.6
9.5
27.0
26.2
26.5

8.0
10.8
9.8
9.5
27.0
26.2
26.2

9.5
10.9
9.8
9.7
27.0
26.0
26.2

10.0
10.9
9.8
9.7
26.8
x
x

10.5
10.9
10.0
9.8
26.8
x
x

11.0
11.0
...

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