Hezbollah “State within the Sate”
Hezbollah (the party of god) is a Shiite political and military group, created in early 1980s during the Israel invasion of Lebanon. The 1975 Lebanese civil war, Israel’s occupation of Lebanon in 1978, and 1979 revolution of Iran played the main role in shaping of the group’s views. The groups of students who returned from Iraq in 1970s were inspired by the 1960s and 1970s shiite revival movements of Southern Iraq. They urged on mobilization of Lebanese impoverished and marginalized Shiite community. In 1974, Imam Musa Sadr, founded the Lebanese Shiites political movement, “Movement of Dispossessed” what was called later Amal (Hope) movement. During the Israeli invasion, the Shiite leaders who favored military response to the Israel occupiers and creation of an Islamic state in Lebanon like one of Iran left Amal and formed Al Amal al Islamiya. This groups headed by Sayed Abbas al Musawi with other Ulama and students founded later the “the Hezbollah Lebanon”. They received both financial and training assistance from Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, Syria and other Shiite groups. They attacked the southern and south parts of Lebanon where were occupied by Israelis. Their attack on the Israel Defense Force (IDF) and US military made them publicly popular as defenders of Lebanon against foreign occupations.
Hezbollah largely continued its underground activities until released its political manifesto in 1985. The manifesto explained their political, militant, and anti-imperialism position which was highly influenced by views of the Grand Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini. In 2009, they announced updates on the first manifesto of Hezbollah. In 1989, Taif Agreement (negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia and approved by Lebanon Parliament) ended civil war in Lebanon. This accord prevented military activities of militia groups, however, it allowed Hezbollah’s militant part to be active (casey L.Addis, 2011). Due to presence of Israeli forces in the south of Lebanon, Hezbollah justified its armed presence as an “Islamic resistance” that should end Israel’s occupation. Currently they use the same reason to justify possession of weapons. The tri border among Lebanese, Syrian, and Israel, “Shib’a Farms” is the disputed area is among them. Hezbollah claim the right to possess weaponries to resist Israeli occupation in those areas.
Following the Taif agreement, Hezbollah started involvement in the Lebanon’s politics. They have shown a steady development in politics by winning seats in parliament, municipalities, and cabinet through public elections gradually. They won eight seats in 1992, 10 seats in 2009 and 3 positions in cabinet. Political strength of Hezbollah increased considerably when Doha Agreement granted them veto power in the cabinet. In 2008, in Doha, Qatar after many days of talk the Lebanon government and rivals reached to agreement to end the eighteen month political crisis that was...