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High Blood Pressure Essay

1730 words - 7 pages

Raised blood pressure is major preventable cause of CVD, and hypertensive people are three times more likely to develop CVD. High blood pressure increases the workload on the heart and can damage the endothelial lining of blood vessels, cause an upsurge of infiltration of lipids into the arterial wall, worsen endothelial damage and enhance atherosclerotic deposition (Thomas & Bishop, 2007). The most significant influences are obesity, excess alcohol and excess salt intake (Williams et al., 2004). Dietary modifications are proven to lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Apple, 1997). A review showed that among overweight hypertensive people, a weight reduction of 3–9% is associated ...view middle of the document...

However, among American children, 79% of those aged 1–3 years and 87% of those aged 4–

Although, there are limited studies examining the increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetables without additional lifestyle or dietary interventions, these studies found that increasing fruit and vegetables as a single intervention has positive effects on CVD risk factors, blood pressure (systolic / diastolic) and LDL (Hartley et al., 2013). However, people who consume high amount of fruits and vegetables are more likely to have a healthier lifestyle and habits (Bazzano, Serdula & Liu, 2003). Joshipura et al. (2001) reported that each single serving per day increase in intake of fruits or vegetables was associated with a 4% lower risk of coronary heart disease. The participants were from a nurses' health study and health professionals' follow-up study; 84,251 women 34 to 59 years of age were followed for 14 years, and 42,148 men 40 to 75 years were followed for eight years. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies reveals that increased consumption of fruit and vegetables from less than three to more than five servings/day correlates with a 17% reduction in coronary heart disease risk (He, Nowson, Lucas, & MacGregor, 2007).
The hypothesis that dietary fibres protect from ischemic heart disease was introduced in 1970s (Trowell, 1972). Since then, a diet rich in fibre has been linked to the CVD risk factors (e.g. obesity, high cholesterol and hypertension) (Van Horn et al., 2008; Truswell, 2002). Fibres' slow gastric emptying speed in the small intestine slows the absorption of nutrients, such as glucose, from the small intestine; therefore, it has a major impact on the glycemic index (GI) of foods (e.g. legumes, pearled barley, and pasta and breads made with unrefined grains) (James, Muir, Curtis & Gibson, 2003). Furthermore, this reduces total and LDL cholesterol levels more than a diet low in SFA and TFA alone; for instance, 3 g of soluble fibre from oats can decrease total and LDL cholesterol by <0.13 mmol/L (Brown, Rosner, Willett & Sacks, 1999). AThe U.S. Department of Agriculture presented certain facts in 2010 (as cited in Clemens et al., 2012): <3% of all Americans met the recommended fibre intake between 2003 to 2006; mean intake of fibre ranged from 10 to 18 g/d, indicating that most Americans need to double their consumption to meet the recommendations of 19–38 g/d (Institute of Medicine [US], Panel on Macronutrients; Institute of Medicine [US] & Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, 2005). Therefore, even minor changes to the diet can help to increase fibre intake without increasing energy intake, for instance, by utilizing the best times for increasing fibre intake, such breakfast and snacks (Clemens et al., 2012).
Several guidelines have emphasized increasing the intake of cardioprotective nutrients, such as nuts, oily fish, alcohol, sterols and soy protein. Many epidemiologic and clinical...

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