The forms of academic rule that typical exist in higher education nationally are below:
Under the heading of Discipline-Rooted Authority were the following: Personal ruler ship (professional), collegial ruler ship (professional), Guild Authority, and Professional Authority. Under the heading of Enterprise Based Authority were the following: Trustee Authority (institutional), and Bureaucratic Authority (institutional). Under the heading of System Based Authority were the following: Bureaucratic Authority (governmental), Political Authority, and Statewide Academic Oligarchy. Lastly is the Wild Card of Authority which is Charisma (Clark, 1993)
Higher Education Faculty
The benefits of tenure in higher education could be considered similar to the benefits of becoming a United States Senator. Both tenured faculty members and United States Senators receive monetary benefits along with a high level of on the job autonomy. Certainly faculty members possess a greater amount of freedom of expression than Senators. Senators have to be careful to be politically correct in what they say and do. One key to this example is that both tenured faculty members and Senators words have the potential to possess a tremendous amount of influence on others.
However controversial tenure may be perceived in the yes of the beholder it is a practice that is accepted by most higher education students, staff, and faculty. In my experiences even if individuals at institutions voice their displeasure about tenure they usually possess the prevailing realization that tenure is so entrenched in American higher education culture that there is no realistic threat to its existence.
Faculty authority created by tenure may cause faculty to weaken teaching due to a reduced motivation provide quality teaching following receiving tenure. In spite of this potential for poor performance tenure may also motivated faculty to develop a reputation of performing well in research and teaching. These faculty members will be motivated by pride to be known as a good teacher along with being a good researcher. Also, many faculty members pursue tenure partly because of the fact that they possess a need for employment independence. Tenure is a very significant accomplishment faculty members favor the benefits of tenure and promotion over other institutional benefits.
One reality of tenure is that many faculty members are not experts on the criteria of receiving tenure. The criterion is different at different institutions and receiving it can be more of an art than a science. For example, we know that faculty members can receive tenure based on research, teaching or service. The criteria for receiving tenure based on service may not necessarily be defined crystal clearly across institutions. For example, a small town college may require a different criterion for receiving tenure based on service, than a large urban university. Since most faculty members pursue tenure based on research they...