Racial boundaries came to be understood differently in South Africa, Brazil and the United States. How and why so? Does this difference make any difference (so to speak) when it comes it the realities of racial inequality and domination in the three countries?
Upon their venture to conquer the world the Europeans were met with an unsullied realm rich in natural resources and natives. These natives were not as technologically advanced as the Europeans. Exploiting the technological gap, European imperialists imposed racial superiority. This thought headed the remedy to the European problem of who was to carry out the gruelling labour of harvesting precious resources. Once the European powers claimed supremacy over the natives in the America’s and Africa, slavery came to be recognized as a significant article of trade to the colonists. Eventually the three countries gave way to emancipation by abolishing slavery, and were forced to integrate the black part of their population into society. Amongst the three countries, Brazil integrated their slave populace relatively more peaceful and smoothly than South Africa and the United States. South Africa and the United States passed laws that would preserve white supremacy and black oppression as Apartheid did with South Africa and the “Jim Crow” laws in the US.
Each country had differences in their development of their nation-building path. This essays aims to discuss the variances in racial exclusion (and inclusion) that were experienced in Brazil, South Africa and the United States and further investigate the contributing factors to each experience.
Firstly it is important to address the idea of racism and what it amounts to. In Accordance to Webster’s dictionary, racism is a belief that race is the primary basis of human traits and capacities and that the racial variances produce an intrinsic superiority of a particular race. It refers to the relationship dynamic whereby one group distinguished by physical attributes has more economic, political and military power than another and uses that power to act on and against an oppressed group (Jacqueline Nelson 2017). As suggested by Anthony Marx, race can be defined as a social construction that is brought into being by cultures, groups and individuals (Marx 1998).
Brazil, South Africa and the United states all incorporated slavery into their economics systems by shipping slaves from overseas as part of a slave trade where slaves were subject to be purchased and traded and ultimately constitute as legal property to their masters. The United States and Brazil were “settler” colonies of European immigrants and African slaves (Kumari 2017). South Africa’s Dutch Cape Colony was responsible for importing slaves from territories surrounding the Indian Ocean.
The abolishment of slavery and slave trade kicked off in the Cape in 1838 following the British conquest of the Cape in 1806. The United States gave emancipation during...