The objective of this essay is to attempt to construct an ideal study method based on accepted theory and empirical evidence on how it improves memory. The layout of this essay will first state a suggested study habit known and thereafter stipulate the theory from which it was drawn from, providing empirical evidence that supports the theory. The study methods that will be discussed are depth of processing and elaboration, encoding specificity and state dependent learning, practice and consolidation, mnemonics and retrieval failures.
The first study habit to be tackled is to match learning and testing conditions, suggests that memory gets more recovered when the encoding and retrieval conditions relate to each other as close as possible. This theory is called the encoding specificity principle, according to Godden & Baddeley we encode information based on when it takes place. When you study or encode information in a classroom you are more likely to retrieve it later on when you are tested on the material, reason being is simply that you have matched the conditions of encoding to that of retrieving memory because you retrieve memories in the place where they were received (Sternberg, Sternberg & Mio, 2012).
This theory of encoding specificity was established due to the experiment that was conducted by Godden and Baddeley in 1975 and was therefore titled the “DIVING EXPERIMENT”. The procedure of the experiment was, they divided the participants into two groups were one group was required to wear diving apparatus and had to study a list of words while underwater. The other group was taken on land and they were also given a list of words to study. Later on the two groups were further divided so that half of the participants would be both on land and in water, they were then tested for recollection of memory half of the participants were tested on land and half were tested underwater. The collection of results demonstrated that the recollection of memory is achieved more when encoding matches conditions of retrieval in other words it means the location in which they both take place must be the same. This is why it is important to study in an environment similar to one you will be tested in (Sternberg, Sternberg & Mio, 2012).
The experiment conducted by Godden and Baddeley met the ethical guidelines are few reasons to suggest how is that they used trained drivers as the in water group, they also made sure the participants were wearing the diving equipment for safety and protection. The experiment lacked ecological variability because the conditions of the environment in their experiment are different to those we experience in everyday life. The experiment did not provide adequate and sufficient evidence (Godden & Baddeley, 1975).
One other theory that is in association with matching conditions of the encoding and retrieval is the theory of state-dependent learning defined as memory affected by ones internal state during the time of...