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Hinduismen Essay

4048 words - 16 pages

HinduismDetta arbete kommer att ytligt att beskriva Indiens största och världens tredje största religion.Hinduismens historiaDen hinduiska religionen är lika gammal som den indiska civilisationen och den kan spåras nästan 5000 år tillbaka i tiden.Indusdalen, 3000-1700 f.Kr.Arkeologer gjorde på 1900-talet en intressant upptäckt av resterna från en antik civilisation i Indusdalen.En del av dessa rester hittades i det som nu kallas Pakistan.Fynden visade att de människor som bodde där från omkring 3000-1700 f.Kr. hade en högt utvecklad livsföring.Arkeologerna hittade figurer och sigill, som visade att människor dyrkade en moder-gudinna och en tjur.Man tror också att människorna ägnade sig åt religiösa riter som var förknippade med bad.Sådana ritualer har hinduerna även idag.Man fann även exempel på svastikasymbolen (hakkors) som än idag är en viktig symbol för hinduerna.Den ariska invasionenOmkring år 1500 f.Kr.invaderade en grupp människor som kallades arier den nordöstra delen av Indien, området i Indusdalen.Dessa indo-arier var besläktade med de s.k. indo-iranier som vid ungefär vid samma tidpunkt bosatte sig i norra Iran.Draviderna det folkslag som bebodde den indiska halvön, underkuvades och erövrarna blev en härskarklass.Den vediska perioden, 1500-600 f.Kr.Arierna dyrkade naturgudar som alla var män, men man tog till sig gudsmodern från Indudalens ursprungliga invånare.Från omkring 1200 f.Kr. komponerade arierna hymner, som lärdes utantill och fördes vidare genom muntlig traditon.Dessa blev de tidigaste hinduiska skrifterna, som kallas Vedaskrifterna. Den ariska perioden i Indien kallas därför den veddiska perioden och religionen kallas den vediska religionen.Tidig hinduism, 600f.Kr.-200e.Kr.Från ungefär 600f.Kr. kritiserades makten hos prästgruppen eller "kasten" vilket ledde till utveckling av andra religioner som jainism och buddhism.Detta påverkade den veddiska religionen.I Manusmriti (Manus lagar) fastställdes plikterna för de fyra olika "kasterna"eller samhällsklasserna.Läran utvecklades också om att en människas liv bestod av fyra stadier med särskilda plikter knutna till vart och ett.Människorna visade mindre respekt för den vediska periodens naturgudar och dyrkade istället gudarna Vishnu och Shiva.Under den här tiden skapades två episka skrifter Mahabharata och Ramayana.Den puraniska perioden, 300-1200e.Kr.Hindu ritualer som vi känner dem idag, blev fullt utvecklade under den här perioden.Perioden som kallas den puraniska perioden har fått sitt namn efter några texter som kallas Purana, vilket betyder "klassiska berättelser".De innehåller några av de viktigaste hinduiska...

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