HIST 307 Final
1. What were the most important transformations in human physiology and social organization between a million years ago and 5000 B.C.E.? Explain what drove these transformations, and why they were so important.
As time developed and different ideas and concepts emerged, things started to drastically changes. The way the people lived their lives and the food they ate and also their habitat. There were many transformations in human physiology and social organizations between a million years ago and 5000 B.C.E being the transformation of human complexity and mainly the spreading of groups.
There were many transformations in human physiology and the most important was different stages of development and changes in the physique of humans. As discussed in the notes from Human Origins and the Emergence, there was the Australopithecus, which walked like humans but brains were 1/3 smaller than the humans today. The first stages of the transformation were really influenced by bipedalism in which the humans could use two feet to walk. This really was the start to bigger changes because as time went on and the Australopithecus were getting the hang of walking on two legs, they had the freedom to do more things with their hands. This resulted in the later transformations being able to build tools, smash things, and dig and to defend themselves. All of the results of bipedalism resulted into more food and survive with more calories.
Along with the transformation in human physique, there were changes and development in the social organizations, which was influential in the societies or groups. The first people would live in what is called a “Band Society” which meant that people were not identified by living in a certain place they lived. They also did not store any goods for long periods of time but was shared highly amongst the groups. The organization was the men would hunt while the women would do the gathering. This wasn’t always the case. According to the textbook, on page 14, it is said that “Cooking with fire…..helped to make population growth”. I think that this is the key is because as population grew there were more than needed people so some went into specializing while others still hunted and gathered.
As time goes on, societies experience many different changes and transformations and even today, there are lots of changes still going on. Millions of years ago there were groups but who didn’t care of anything else except surviving but as time went on and more and more challenges came upon, it made the groups come up with new ideas and technology to overcome the challenge. That was the same pace until 500 B.C.E in that there were groups which made cities and which also made empires. The later empires also were faced with challenges and that influenced them to come up with solutions. For example, the Mongols, living in the Steppes had to overcome the traveling in high terrain so they came up with the idea to ride horses which...