“For over 2000 years psychology remained an integral part of philosophy. The ancient
philosophers of Greece, Italy and Egypt from around the seventh century BCE onwards, raised the perennial questions concerning the nature of nature, the nature of human nature, the mind, the soul, purpose, and of course the nature of the human soul” (Laungani, 2004, p. 108). Understanding where exactly the origins of psychology begin is still under investigation by researchers to this day. Did psychology first begin for when the early Greeks proposed methodical explanations and theories of memory, perception, and human cognitive experience, or when it developed as a separate science in the 19th century. For whenever psychology rooted up into existence, Western philosophers and psychologists have been attempting to figure out human behavior and thought processes ever since.
According to Laungani, 2004, “The Greeks laid the intellectual foundations on which future ideas and theories were constructed. It is fascinating to note that most of the issues of concern to ancient philosophers are as relevant today as they were in the past. For instance, issues related to the composition of matter, the nature of change and permanence, the relationship between mind (soul) and body, are debated as vigorously today as they were in the past” (p. 180). Not until the middle of the nineteenth century, psychology was perceived as an essential part of philosophy. “It was only in the latter part of the nineteenth century that several psychologists in America and in Europe began to question what they felt were the ‘constraints of philosophy’ upon their fledgling discipline and started to consider the possibility of transforming psychology into a scientific discipline, thereby freeing it from the all-embracing influence of philosophy” (Laungani, 2004, p. 180). Today, the questions that psychology is now attempting to answer are often the same questions it has been trying to answer from its inception. Within this paper, we will be focusing on two of the most heated debated questions and problems faced in psychology today. This will include the mind and body/soul relationship problem and the difference between nature versus nurture.
The aims and objectives of this paper are to discuss and compare the views of Aristotle and Descartes on the relationship between body and mind/soul problem. Second, we will discuss and compare the views of John Locke and Immanuel Kant on the role of nature versus nurture in knowledge acquisition. Knowledge acquisition is how the mind organizes and represents information presented from the person’s environment. Either humans are born with ideas already in their minds or everything they know has been acquired by experience exterior influences. Lastly, we will discuss and provide an overall conclusion about the origins of the body and mind/soul concept, the roles and conflicts between nature versus nurture and ultimately how the philosophers and research has...