Democracy as the political system in Indonesia has a long history and many processes until it could be formed as the political system like nowadays. Indonesia with its proclamation proved the independence of the country and announced freedom from colonialism. However, although the independence of Indonesia stated it as a sovereign country, the people of the country still have a problem in sovereignty.
It made the government set different democracy political system of the state to make it ideal and suitable for the citizen. By this condition, it reflected a long history of Indonesia’s democratic political system since the independence until now. Nevertheless, is the democracy system that has been organized until now reflected the democracy of people and made Indonesia as a democratic country?
The definition of democracy based on Abraham Lincoln is the government of, by and for the people. It means that the people of the state have the same rights, chance and voice to organize the government policy. In democracy, decision was taken by the majority vote. By this definition, it made Indonesia has 4 periods of democracy system that changed through the progress of the state.
• Parliamentarian Democracy (1945-1959)
A year after the independence in 1945, government of Indonesia set a political system named parliamentarian democracy or liberal. This system based on Temporary Constitution 1950, made the prime minister as the leader of government, whereas the President has a role as the head of the state. It made the position of legislative, higher than executive. Based on this structure, the democracy in this system was weak and being dominated by the interest of political parties. Since the cabinet is always successive, it made the development and program for the country could not run smoothly. By this condition, Ir. Soekarno as the president was worried and decided to end the parliamentarian system and announced the re-enactment of Constitution 1945 as the permanent constitution by the President decree on 5 July 1959. It showed that though democracy was offered in this system, but the domination power of some political parties and their own interest against the citizen’s interest made the citizens disappointed. Liberal was also far from Pancasila as the goal of Indonesia to create unity.
• Guided Democracy (1959-1965)
The decree of President on 5 July 1959 made a new democratic system for Indonesia. Soekarno as the president created a system based on the 4th point of Pancasila that upholds the value of discussion in decision making. This system, made Soekarno not only as the head of state, but also as the leader of government. He tried to organized the political parties became one, under the name of national council and made a cabinet of ministries that was not bounded by the political parties. However, the value of democracy in this system was tending to the authoritarian of Soekarno as the president that made the basic of this system vague....