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History Of The Catholic Church. Essay

1788 words - 7 pages

The High Middle Ages1. The renewal began at the monastery of Cluny in the 900s was slowly dislodging the Church from the feudal system, whereby bishops and abbots did the bidding of secular lords and kings. The papacy had suffered mightly from being at the whim of Roman nobles. The pope was hardly an independent spiritual leader at that point.2. Powerful sorces were reshaping the west creating a European world that would look quite different from the relatively disorganized, lawless world of feudal Eurpope's Dark Ages. The Church had a key role in shaping that world.A New World in the Makings:Cities and Powerful Kings1. Two features emerginging in Europe were the growth of cities and the increasing power of kings.Urban Culture on the Rise2. Ever since the old Roman Empire collapsed under the assault of the barbarians, the civilization we recognize as the Wester Europe had been basically rural. The region had few cities and towns, little significant trade and only poor methods of communication and travel. Feudal Europe was economically depressed and people could barley eke out a living on the land.The Monastic Spur to Urban Growth3. The monasteries had done a great service by preserving and passing on learning and by offering models of social organization and service. In mancy respects they enabled the West to pull through the Dark Ages, with some sense of order and tradition. Oddly enough, the monasteries, where rural and agricultural, provided the impetus for the growth of cities and towns, partly because of their innovative farming practices. The order calles the Cisterians, founded in 1098 as a reformed offshoot of the Beneditines, developed new agricultural techniques-- way of draining swamps and the use of crop rotation. Soon these methods were being employed all over Europe. More and better agricultural product in turn imporved the quality of life just enough so that the population grew slightly.The Growth of Trade and Crafts4. People migrated to population centers, looking for a livelihood. Because towns were markets for goods and centers of administration for btoh Church and state, they provided jobs for the people who were not needed in agriculture.5. Most towns grew around castles or the cathedrals that were under construction; others develped along the roads traveled by merchants.6. Skilled workers came to live and labor where enough employers to hire them or people to buy the goods they produced, such as farming tools, shoes, clothing, spimming, wheels, and swords.7. Craft workers formed guilds, which were forerunners of the trade unions we have today. Guilds usually chose patron saints and took part in Church liturgies with displays of banners and statues.8. The Church needed skilled workers: stonemasons, stonecarvers, carpenters, stained-glass makers, sculptors, and painters.9. The supply of money began to increase, and a banking system was established. Jews weren't allowed to own land, the occupation of banking and moneylending...

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