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History Of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids)

799 words - 4 pages

Introduction
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) made its first appearance in 1981. Two years later, in 1983, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) was found to be the cause of the syndrome and after that commenced an immense search towards finding appropriate therapy for this fatal disease. The first drug that was apporoved and licensed by FDA was the former created 3’-azido-2’,3’-dideoxythymidine (also called zidovudine, or AZT) after it demonstrated in vitro inhibitory effect on HIV. However, there was a predecessor of AZT that inhibited in vitro HIV, a substance called suramin, which was used in the treatment of african trypanosomiasis and oncochersiasis, although it was abonded ...view middle of the document...

These agents target in different stages of the life cycle of the virus simultaneously without interfering with the normal immune mechanisms. The combination treatment was able to drive the plasma viral load under the detection limits, thus minimizing the viral reproduction, preventing resistance emergence and significantly lowering the mortality. In HAART regimens, NNRTIs are prefered to protease inhibitors (along with the NRTIs) as they are more convinient to use, require fewer pills per day and less drug interactions, leaving the potent protease inhibitors as a second or third line therapy. Apart from that, the constant appearance of newer and more evolved antiretroviral compounds provides scientists the ability to select medications personalized for each patient, so that resistance to a specific agent or drug-to-dug interference would be prevented from the start of the therapy
However, despite the effectiveness of the triple therapy, several problems were adressed including severe metabolic disorders and also the difficulty for patients to adjust to such severe regimens as it required lifetime drug use, pill burdens and multiple daily administrations. The life-long use derives from the fact that when a patient doesn’t continue the therapy, the viral load will rise and also new resistance will appear. These difficulties made clear that more simplified treatment were needed, leading to the emergence of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs). Combivir was the first one, containtin AZT...

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