History Of Chemistry Essay

1095 words - 5 pages

The Bohr model is a big part of Chemistry history. Neils Bohr proposed this model in 1913. It states that electrons orbit the nucleus at set distances. The model was an expansion on the Rutherford model overcame (Coffey, Universe Today). Neils Bohr’s model was based on his observations of the atomic emissions spectrum of the hydrogen atom (Coffey, Universe Today). His findings said that the electron can move to a higher-energy orbit by gaining an amount of energy equal to the difference in energy between the higher-energy orbit and the initial lower-energy orbit (pg.102, line 20). But time and research has proven and changed the Bohr model; Making this model one of the most famous models in Chemistry history.
As stated earlier, Bohr said that electrons are at a set distance from the nucleus, but this proved to be true only in the hydrogen atom. Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom explained /observed spectral lines so well that many scientists concluded that the model could be applied to all atoms (pg.103, line 8). It was soon recognized, however, that Bohr’s approach didn’t explain the spectrum of atoms with more than one electron, nor did his theory explain the chemical behavior of atoms (pg.103, line 10). Most significantly, Bohr’s model violates the uncertainty principle because it features electrons with known orbital periods and a definite radius-two attributes which cannot be directly determined simultaneously (aps.org/physics). So basically, Bohr’s model was proved not true, because you cannot know exactly where an electron is at any given moment.
Bohr’s model caused scientists to start asking questions. Why did the hydrogen’s electron exist around the nucleus only in certain allowed orbits with definite energies (pg.104, line 2)? Why couldn’t the electron exist in a limitless number of orbitals with slightly different energies (pg.104, line 4)? Scientists began changing their view on the nature of the electron. They eventually discovered, through investigation of the hydrogen’s emission-line spectrum, that light could behave as both a wave and particle (pg.104, line 9). This discovery caused Dr. Brogile to point out that in many ways the behavior of electron in Bohr’s quantified orbits was similar to the known behavior of waves (pg.104, line 14). This later led to Dr. Brogile suggesting that electrons be considered waves confined to the space around an atomic nucleus (pg.104, line 17). This hypothesis and many more were proven true: electrons can be bent or diffracted like waves, as well as interfere with each other (pg.104, line 10).
Erwin Schrodinger used a hypothesis that treated electrons as waves (pg105, line 16), and, using the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, he created the modern Quantum theory which describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles (aps.org/physics). This theory determined that wave functions give only the probability of finding an electron at a given place around the...

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